Introducing Value Area Networks - Matched participants by shared values. By Dana Edwards. Posted on Steemit. December 14, 2018.
This concept is possible only based on the design of Tauchain presented by Ohad. In his design for Tauchain he highlights the fact that any member of the social network will be allowed to input their worldview. It has been discussed by myself previously that moral values could be an important part of Tauchain in this setting.
A Value Area Network is a concept I'm introducing which is designated to mean a kind of network where all participants are matched according to shared values. These participants in the network (economic agents, bots, machines, humans, companies, whatever) should in theory be allowed to outline as much of their current values and as long as all participants are deemed to be in alignment by the consensus algorithm of Tau then they will be considered part of unified network.
The acronym VAN can be designated to stand for Value Area Network, not to be confused by Value Added Network. Unlike a LAN (Local Area Network) which is based on physical geography, the VAN is based on "social geography". People who are closer to each other socially on the moral and "concerns and values" level would represent a sort of shared location. In social science the concept of social proximity is defined mostly in geographical terms but in the digital age with a technology like Tau in existence the idea of closeness might not have to be restricted to the geographical definition.
Closeness in terms of how close your values align to another participant in a network would represent a distinct place on a sort of map. This distinct place would be represented or quantified by a score which indicates it's potential location on a spectrum of possible locations. Of course the mathematics behind this would have to be more clearly defined in future posts but this post is to introduce the concepts for future discussion.
My concerns and reasons behind thinking up VANs is based on that fact that while social media today does a pretty good job connecting billions of people to random people it also does a horrible job connecting socially compatible people to each other. It's not good enough to connect a bunch of random people. People want to connect to people who have compatible values with themselves as their values are constantly updating over time. Tauchain in theory is the only platform which is expected to have the features to make this idea a possibility.
Values in this context could be negotiated from or derived from beliefs or worldview using Tau discussion. The values then would over time be updating as the person updates their beliefs or worldview. This would be to go the emergent route of letting Tau try to identify the values of the participant based on what the participant said in discussions (avoiding contradictions). The other would be to let the participant explicitly enter their current values and over time let Tau help them to constantly update that over time.
These are features I hope to see developed over Tau in some form some day. If I'm in the position to bring these features into development (provided AGRS works as intended) then this could be one of my contributions. The key mechanism behind this feature would be a novel matchmaking algorithm which leverages the Tau Shared Knowledge Base and reasoning capabilities. The social values map feature could be deduced via the discussions had over time or it can simply be a checkbox setting where the participant chooses by checking boxes and sliding scales.
Smaller vs larger denominations in crypto
The large denominations produce a different psychology (the psychology of scarcity). This has a problem though because if for example 1 ETH or 1 BTC is $1000 it does eventually begin to look like it's just for rich people. It begins to look to some in developing countries that it's just too expensive. On the other hand Ripple has smaller denominations and still has quite a high market cap regardless.
In the official documents, it is known that the Agora tokens currently being sold on exchanges are "intermediate tokens". There are going to be roughly 42 million intermediate tokens. When people look at it this way people might think the price of AGRS is high after a certain psychological barrier such as $100. At $100 using the intermediate tokens the market cap would be four billion two hundred million. In crypto this is not that high of a market cap and in tech this is not so high. A tech company can easily reach a market cap of 4 billion and if we remember Snapchat had a market cap far beyond that.
In the case of Tauchain which the goal is to reveal to the world truly novel technological breakthroughs which provide for unique features then we can not predict where the high end for AGRS will be. What we can know is that the price looks vastly different if we look at it via intermediate tokens vs official Agora tokens. 147,000,000,000 tokens can exist according to Ohad.
So we do not sell Zennet coins anymore, and all previous buyers will get Agora, offering no less but much more technological and economical features. The current sale terms are as follows: From now on, we sell 50% of coins for approx $2M: The current price is $100 for 3.5 million (3,500,000) Agora coins, and will go up in 2% every week. Total number of coins is 147,000,000,000.
In this case the true number is 147 billion. These are Ripple like numbers. So a price of between 0.01 and 0.04 USD is per token is reasonable in a good market. The $1 range is if AGRS achieves similar to Bitcoin price success range. This in my opinion would be extremely optimistic. Ultimately no one can predict where the price could move and currently 1 true AGRS is less than a penny.
For people who did take the risk to buy Agora tokens at $100 to get 3.5 million? If it ever does reach $1 level (Ripple or Bitcoin scale success) then you folks are multi-millionaires in the making.
Tauchain: The Social Dispersed Computer introduced as a Social Network? By Dana Edwards. Posted on Steemit. October 12, 2018.
What might a Tau Operating System via a Tau Social Dispersed Computer function like?
We know from tauchain.org that the first iteration of Tau is to be a discussion platform not too dissimilar from Facebook. Of course this would simply be the front end or the "face" of what could behind the scenes evolve toward a social dispersed computer complete with a dispersed operating system. The resources have to be managed and a kernel could provide for this in a manner not dissimilar to what we see with EOS. The Agoras or AGRS token specifically represents "resources" as it is the tokenization of resources for whichever application Tauchain will use.
TML provides the basis from which to create the necessary languages to produce a dispersed operating system computer. Zennet even has an algorithm which Ohad himself worked on for the purpose of calculating the resource requirements. All minds will be able to contribute towards the computational resources (at least in theory) of Tauchain.
Because of Zennet there may in fact not be a limit to the amount of computation resources which we could throw at the super computer. It will of course depend on resource management which is where a kernel likely comes into play because any smart apps built to run on Tau will have to ask for resources. Resource management is one of the core functions of a kernel and of an operating system which is why I think it is likely that Tauchain will have one. I think the Ethereum route shows problems with scaling as applications also have to compete for resources in a way where the network cannot self manage it. Cryptokitties for example can render the whole Ethereum network lagged and if this is a computer then it could mean a nonsense app could disrupt more critical apps.
A prime example of a potential smart app for Tauchain
An example (which may or may not be feasible) is a health and fitness app. The app in theory could allow any user to provide data such as genetic information, blood test results, exercise tracking, blood pressure, blood sugar and anything else. All of this could provide a feedback loop back to the patient on how to improve their health over time based on the knowledge of Tau. As technology gets better the users could add more devices to provide more data for a better feedback loop. As technology evolves FGPAs could be added to meet the demand for calculations and storage can be rented as well.
An operating system could give priority to this kind of app by load balancing the resources. How would it know to do this? Tau could learn the morals, legal ramifications, and a consensus can emerge that health related apps deserve a premium access to resources because it can save lives.
The Paradigm of Social Dispersed Computing and the Utility of Agoras. By Dana Edwards. Posted on Steemit. October 12, 2018.
Social Dispersed Computing
What is socially dispersed computing? It is an edge oriented computing paradigm which goes beyond cloud and fog computing. To understand socially dispersed computing we first have to discuss dispersed computing and how it differs from the previous paradigm of cloud and fog computing. The current trend toward decentralized networks which we first saw with the peer to peer technologies such as Napster, Limewire, Bittorrent, and later with Bitcoin, have brought to us an opportunity to conceptually new paradigms. The original model most people are familiar with is the client server model which was very much limited in that the server was always vulnerable to DDOS attack. The client server model has never been and could likely never be censorship resistant.
In the client server model the server could simply shut down as was the case with Bitconnect or it could be raided. The server could also be shut down by hackers who simply flood the site with requests. As we can see from the problems the client server model presented we discovered the utility of the peer to peer model. The peer to peer model was all about censorship resistance and promoted a network which was to have no single point of failure (single point of attack) which could be result in the shutdown of access points to the information. One of the first applications for these peer to peer networks was file sharing networks and networks such as Freenet/Tor etc. This of course eventually evolved into the Bitcoin which ultimately led to the development of Steem.
In dispersed computing a concept is introduced called "Networked Computation Points". An NCP can execute a function in support of user applications. To elaborate further I'll offer something below.
Consider that every component in a network is a node. Now consider that every component node is an NCP in that it can execute some function to support some user application. If we think of for example a blockchain then we know mining would fit into this category because it is both a node in the network and it also can execute a function in support of Bitcoin transactions. Why is any of this important? Parallelism is something we can gain from dispersed computing and please note that it is distinct form concurrent computing. When we rely on parallelism we can reap the benefits in terms of performance when executing code by breaking it up into many small tasks which can be performed across many CPUs.
EOS attempts to leverage parallelism specifically to enable it's performance boost. The benefit is speed and flexibility. Think for example of the hardware side also with FGPAs which can do similar tasks of a microprocessor. FGPAs (not ASICs) which unlike ASICs would provide generalized flexible parallel computing. Consider that just like with mining a company could add more and more FGPAs to scale an application as needed.
To understand Social Dispersed Computing we have to make note of the fact that there are other users at any given time. For example the other users in the network participate to provide resources to the network for the benefit of other users whilst using the network. So in Steem for example as you add content to Steem you are adding value to Steem in a direct way, but also in a dynamic way. The resources on Steem also can adapt dynamically to the demand provided that the incentive mechanism (Resource Credits) works as intended.
EOS as an example DOSC (Dispersed Operating System Computer)
Because EOS seems to be the first to approach this holistically I will give credit to the EOS network for pioneering dispersed computing in the crypto space. All resources are representable by tokenization in a dispersed computing network. EOS and even Steem have this. Steem has it in the form of "Resource Credits" which represent the available resources on the Steem network. If more resources are needed then theoretically the resource credits could act as an incentive to provide these resources to the Steem network. This provides a permanent price floor to Steem represented as the amount of Steem which would have to be purchased in order to have enough resources to run Steem (if I have the correct theoretical understanding). This would put Steem on a trajectory toward dispersed computing.
Operating systems typically sit between the hardware and software as a sort of abstraction layer. This traditionally has been valuable because programmers don't have to directly speak to the hardware and hardware designers don't have to directly communicate by their designs to the programmer. In essence the operating system in the traditional model is centralized and made by a company such as Microsoft or Apple. This centralized operating system typically runs on a device or set of devices and provides some standard services such as email, a web browser, and maybe even a Bitcoin wallet.
Typically the most valuable or high utility software people consider on a computer is the operating system. In our smart phones this is Android OS and in PCs it may be Windows or Linux. This is of course thrown on it's head under the new paradigm of dispersed computing and the new conceptual model of the "decentralized" operating system. EOS is the first to attempt a decentralized operating system using current blockchain technology but the upcoming technology easily eclipses what EOS could do. Tauchain is a technology which if successful will leave EOS in the stone age in terms of what it will be able to do. EOS while ambitious also has had it's problems with regard to the voting mechanisms and the ease at which collusion can take place.
To better understand how decentralized operating systems emerge learn about:
If we look at OSKit we see that it is the tools necessary for operating system development. If we look at Tauchain we realize that it is strategically the most important tool for the development of a decentralized operating system being provided in the form of TML (a partial evaluator). If we think of the primary tool necessary to develop from we have to initially start with a compiler. A compiler generator is more like what TML allows with it's partial evaluator. More specifically it is the feature of Futamura projection which can provide the ability to generate compilers.
If we look at the next most important part of an operating system it is typically the kernel. Let's have a look at what an exokernel is:
Operating systems generally present hardware resources to applications through high-level abstractions such as (virtual) file systems. The idea behind exokernels is to force as few abstractions as possible on application developers, enabling them to make as many decisions as possible about hardware abstractions. Exokernels are tiny, since functionality is limited to ensuring protection and multiplexing of resources, which is considerably simpler than conventional microkernels' implementation of message passing and monolithic kernels' implementation of high-level abstractions.
By Thorben Bochenek [CC BY-SA 3.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
From this at minimum we can see that an exokernel is a more efficient and direct way for programmers to communicate with hardware. To be more specific, "programs" communicate with hardware directly by way of an exokernel. We know the most basic function of a kernel in an operating system is the management of resources. We know in a decentralized context that tokenization allows for incentives for management of resources. When we combine them we get kernel+tokenization to produce an elementary foundation of an operating system. In a distributed context we could apply a decentralized operating system in such a way that the network could be treated as a unified computer.
Abstraction is still important by the way. In an operating system we know the object oriented way of abstraction. Typically the programmer works with the concept of objects. In an "Application Operating Environment" an "Application Object" can be another useful abstraction. Abstraction can of course be taken further but that is for another blog post.
The Utility of Agoras
Agoras+TML is interesting. Agoras is the resource management component of what may evolve into the Tau Operating System. This Tau Operating System or TOS is something which would be vastly superior to EOS or anything else out there because of the unique abilities of Agoras. The main abilities have been announced on the website such as the knowledge exchange (knowledge market) where humans and machines alike can contribute knowledge to the network in exchange for the token reward. We also know that Agoras will have a more direct resource contribution incentive property in the form of the AGRS token so as to facilitate the sale or trade of storage, bandwidth or computation resources.
The possible (likely?) emergence of the Tau Operating System
In order for Tauchain to evolve into a Dispersed Operating System Computer it will need an equivalent to a kernel. Some means of allowing whomever is responsible for the Tauchain network to control and manage the resources of that network. If for example the users decide then by way of discussion there would be a formal specification or model of a future iteration of the Tauchain network. This according to current documents is what would produce the requirements for the Beta version of the network to apply program synthesis. Program synthesis in essence could result in a kernel and from there the components of a Tau Operating System could be synthesized in the same way. Just remember that all that I write is purely speculative as we have no way to predict with certainty the direction the community will take during the alpha.
An Update on Tauchain & Agoras (Exchange Listing + Interview Questions). By Kevin Wong. Posted on Steemit. September 15, 2018.
Agoras is getting listed on a new exchange.
Tauchain is a blockchain that doesn't have its own coin just like the Internet, but Agoras is a project that is designed to be built on top of it, hence the existence of Agoras Tokens. It's the only closest way to be able to invest in Tau. The demo is coming soon, but the blockchain itself will only come into fruition in year 2020 or later, so this is really more of a notice for those who are interested to support the project at this relatively risky stage.
For your information, this project has one of the fairest distributions in the space as the team behind it only reserved 3% of the total supply for themselves. At the moment, it's available on Bitshares / Openledger under AGRS (make sure it's the correct asset if you're looking into it).
The new exchange that Agoras will be listed is at https://www.bcex.ca on 18th of September 2018. The announcement can be found here. There's also another recent community update that can be found here.
Tauchain is certainly not a project that is easy to comprehend at first. If you have any questions after going through the available materials, feel free to drop a comment or two and I might include it in the written interview that I'm planning to forward to the team soon. Thanks in advance!
Also, feel free to drop by the group's Telegram channel: https://t.me/tauchain.
If you have no idea what Tauchain is about but interested to get to know more about it, check out these links:-
Not to be taken as financial advice.
Always do your own research.
Tauchain is not easy to understand but here are some concepts to know to track Ohad's progress. By Dana Edwards. Posted on Steemit. February 28, 2018.
Someone asked over social media why anyone would want to hold onto AGRS tokens merely due to faith in Ohad Asor. This is a good question to ask and a good time to ask it. I'll explain first why I'm holding and then explain how it is important to understand what you invest in.
I hold AGRS because I've communicated with Ohad Asor and he is one of the rare people who is better at research and development than I am. In fact, he is the best I've met so far in the crypto community at that specifically. R&D is the most critical component in software design and we see over and over again if they get that wrong projects are doomed. One of the strengths of Steemit, EOS, etc, is that Dan Larimer is very good at conducting both R&D and at writing the code.
Tauchain currently and unfortunately requires a Phd level understanding of computer science to get very excited about. This is not so good for people who do not really understand their investments but it means that you have the option to ask people who do have Phd level knowledge to either explain Tauchain to you or some aspect of these concepts which I'll list below.
The concepts to understand in order to see what Ohad is attempting on Github.
These concepts may be abstract but they all work together to allow for you the user to input both a document and a grammar into TML and receive a useful output. You have the power of partial evaluation with Futamura Projection. Without going into too much detail here, what it will allow is for the user to provide the input document defining the language and a source code. The first document is the "interpreter" to parse the source code.
So if we look at Github we can see Ohad has completed a rough yet functional implementation of the TML with partial fixed point logic and partial evaluation. The Earley parser takes the source code which is always a string, and parses it. This quote from Wikipedia explains it better:
In computer science, the Earley parser is an algorithm for parsing strings that belong to a given context-free language, though (depending on the variant) it may suffer problems with certain nullable grammars. The algorithm, named after its inventor, Jay Earley, is a chart parser that uses dynamic programming; it is mainly used for parsing in computational linguistics. It was first introduced in his dissertation in 1968 (and later appeared in abbreviated, more legible form in a journal).
In developing compilers we use the grammar to define the syntax of a programming language. TML will require a grammar defining the syntax of the language you want to use and also the source code which are the commands. The AST is an abstract representation of the source code and the logic is applied are part of the syntax analysis phase of compiling. If I did not explain this sufficiently, I apologize as this is again something complicated and requires a lot of prerequisite knowledge.
The point being that if you really want to understand why some of us are so excited about what Ohad Asor is attempting to do then the only way to truly grasp what is at stake is to do the necessary learning. Learn as much as you can about your investment. Study the concepts you have to study in order to keep up with what happens on Github. You don't have to trust the experts if you're willing to gather the knowledge to become an expert yourself. This means reading at minimum all the Wikipedia entries and at maximum it could mean spending hundreds of hours watching Youtube videos, reading academic journals, like some of us have been doing.
If you do not want to invest the time and energy to truly understand Tauchain then maybe it is better that you do not buy a token you cannot understand. Simply wait for it to reach a stage to where you can see what it can do for yourself before making a decision. Do not consider this post or these comments as investment advice but merely a suggestion to use caution with regard to how you spend your money if you do not understand what you are getting into.
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Suggested readings to better understand the Tau ecosystem, Tau Meta Language, Tau-Chain and Agoras, and collaborate in the development of the project.
Lecturas sugeridas para entender mejor el ecosistema Tau, Tau Meta Lenguaje, Tau-Chain y Agoras, y colaborar en el desarrollo del proyecto.