Tauchain 101: Essential Reading On One Of The Most Revolutionary Blockchain Project Under The Radar...By Rok Sivante. Published on Steemit. August 3, 2018.
Amidst countless blockchain projects hyping themselves up as "the next big thing," there are a few that have been working under the radar that hold the promise - not in word, but in substance - of truly being revolutionary game-changers.
Such ventures have not yet often come into the spotlight. Partly, due to that their founders have focused first on the fundamentals of creating something that speaks for itself versus the all-too-common approach of prioritizing sensationalistic marketing. And partly, because the degree of innovativeness they represent - in tandem with a complexity in scope of the larger visions and implications of their success - does not always lend itself to an easy understanding upfront.
One such project - still very early on in its development, yet holding transformative potentials no less grand than those of Bitcoin and Ethereum as they birthed and evolved the blockchain landscape:
Until recently, with the launch of a new website that has successfully managed to articulate the project's vision much more clearly, understanding what Tauchain is striving to accomplish was a domain only a very few, highly-intelligent technically-inclined dared to tread. And prior to December 2018, there was no code - only an unproven concept spearheaded by a single Israeli developer, Ohad Asor, whom nearly all who've managed to connect with have declared to be one of the most brilliant geniuses they've ever met, possibly ahead of his time.
Just as Bitcoin introduced blockchain as an innovation radically altering the trajectory of our societal, economic, and technological evolution - and Ethereum continued in suit with its upgrades to expand in developing upon the vision with entirely new sets of capabilities for developing a range of decentralized applications and smart contracts - so too, may Tauchain be such a platform whose success proves comparable, the impact of which may bring quantum leaps in the Blockchain Revolution.
How and where to start in describing Tauchain...?
Well, were we to begin with the technical side of things, it'd be likely to lose 98% of the audience. So perhaps, a better starting point might be the bigger picture:
This generalized overview, however, still only barely scratches the surface.
While the intended ends may be that of a generic concept enabling drastically-increased efficiency in global collaboration, the means by which such is to be achieved entails a number of innovative component developments that each hold great significance and implications of their own.
While each may require deeper exploration to better grasp and begin piecing together into the bigger picture, the Tauchain website now offers an overview of key features which account for just some of what it to differentiate it from other blockchain platforms - and enable new collaborative capabilities not currently possible with currently existing technologies:
While it'd be possible to expand upon each in great detail - both in regards to the functionality and implications for their applications - this particular piece of writing is to serve as a basic introduction to some of the best, most-easily-accessible content written on Tauchain to-date.
And as we transition into that content, we shall begin with a quote summarizing the core essence of Tauchain, as approached from but one angle:
This project created by Ohad Asor is really ambitious and aims to create the internet of knowledge.
Some people would label it as an Artificial Intelligence, but according to the creator this is something totally different. Summing up and to understand me, Tau-chain is a tool that knows how to interpret any information and deduce any consensus. This tool can be used in any field, judicial, political, academic, social, scientific and also without limits assembly from 2 people to a million for example.
~ @capitanart, from "My experience with Tau-chain"
The collection begins with two selections from Steemit's @trafalgar.
If anyone has successfully managed to distill the essence of the Tauchain vision into words that'd serve as a foundational Tauchain 101 intro, it'd have been him in these two excellent pieces:
What Is Tau? - My Only Other Crypto Investment
The Power of Tau - Scaling the Creation of Knowledge
Next, come three short articles from @flis, which may not go into any new details beyond the three above, yet offer a slightly different yet simplified perspective to reinforce the clarification of Tauchain's key concepts:
The vision of Tau-Chain, a blockchain based self-amending platform designed to scale human collaboration and knowledge building
How Tau-Chain can be implemented in practice
Tau Chain vs. Tezos - which platform will provide a better solution?
~ design credit: @voronoi
Next, come a few selections from @dana-edwards, who has likely been the single individual who has translated the highly-complex technical vision of Ohad Asor into a more-approachable nature from which non-academics may begin and better understanding a Tauchain.
Quite possibly the first to write of developments and share outside of the project’s IRC channel and Bitcoin talk thread, Dana has one of the most comprehensive grasps publicized anywhere on the project, and his writings continue to serve in establishing bridges for more people to discover and deepen their own comprehensions of the innovations Tauchain represents to not only computer science and the blockchain revolution, but cultural & societal evolution as well.
What follows are a collection of his writings related to the project which excellently piece together key ideas and insights, from which the gaps may be filled in to grasp a firmer idea of just how significant these developments could be and what the bigger picture of their success might look like:
What Tauchain can do for us: Collaborative Serious Alternate Reality Games
What Tauchain can do for us: Finding the world's biggest problems
Tauchain: The automated programmer
Artificial morality: Moral agents and Tauchain
What Tauchain can do for us: Effective Altruism + Tauchain
Collaborative Alternate Reality Games + Tauchain = UBAs (Universal Basic Assets)?
Tauchain and Tezos, why adaptability is the key to surviving in a fast changing environment
My commentary on Ohad's latest blog post: "Agoras to TML"
The following three pieces are not introductory-level, and may likely require a background in computer programming to understanding. However, for anyone reading who might be interested in diving deeper into the technical side of the project, they are included here:
Tauchain is not easy to understand but here are some concepts to know to track Ohad's progress
For all who are researching Tauchain (TML) to understand how it works, a nice video!
More on partial evaluation - How does partial evaluation work and why is it important?
~ design credit: @crypticalias
One other writer covering Tauchain needing to be mentioned: @karov.
While not the easiest to read and understand, the Steemit account of Georgi Karov is undoubtedly one of the most consistent sources of coverage on the project.
A lawyer by-trade and currently one of the three members of the core team, @karov's insights into the project are reliably detailed, expansive into philosophical territory, and fascinating.
Although none of his articles have been included in this introductory collection, those who may be interested to keep up-to-date with coverage on the project would be well-advised to follow his Steemit blog - and/or read backwards through the last few months of his posts there, as the blog is nearly-entirely Tauchain-related content.
Lastly, though not least:
Coming from one of Steemit's most brilliant early-adopter-minds, @kevinwong, this one is a quick read in itself with some key points worth factoring in to a proper assessment of the project. And - far lengthier than the post itself - the comments thread also contains some gold:
Is Tauchain Agoras in Good Hands?
And to wrap up with another excellent quotes from design consultant to the project, @capitanart - who is another to follow for updates:
The goal of Tau is to create a supermind, to solve the limitations inherent in human communication on a large scale.
Able to deduce consensus and understand discussions, Tau can generate and execute code automatically based on consensus, through a process known as code synthesis. This will greatly accelerate the production of knowledge and streamline most of the large-scale collaborative efforts we can imagine in today's world.
~ design credit: @overdye
Using Controlled English as a Knowledge Representation language. By Dana Edwards. Posted on Steemit. April 4, 2017.
Previously I mentioned "controlled English" when discussing the concept of knowledge representation. This post will go into some detail about what controlled English is. In specific I will discuss Kuhn's doctoral dissertation and Attempto Controlled English (ACE).
Computational linguistics is an interdisciplinary field concerned with the statistical or rule-based modeling of natural language from a computational perspective.
There are many different controlled natural languages
First I would like to discuss the fact that controlled English is not the only controlled nature language and Attempto Controlled English is only one particular controlled English. For example 1 there is RuleSpeak which is a controlled natural language for business rules. Another example2 is Quelo Controlled English which is a controlled English for querying, where you would say statements such as: "I am looking for something, it should be located in a city, the city should produce a new car, the new car should be equipped with a diesel engine". In addition to these examples we also have Google which uses Voice Actions where you can speak into your android phone and say something like: "Create a calendar event: Dinner in San Francisco, Saturday at 7:00PM". All of these are examples of controlled natural languages and reveal just how powerful this could be for users and developers.
What is Attempto Controlled English (ACE)?
Attempto Controlled English also known as ACE is a specific controlled natural language. It is likely that at some point in the early stages of development this controlled natural language will be implemented on Tauchain. ACE is like English but relies on following certain rules with a restricted vocabulary.
Rule subject + verb + complements + adjuncts
All simple ACE sentences have the above structure of subject + verb + complements + adjuncts. An example would be the following sentences below:
A customer waits.
To construct sentences without a verb you can rely on:
there is + noun phrase
There is a customer.
And you can add detail with:
A trusted customer inserts two valid cards.
And you can use variables:
How does Attempto Controlled English help with Knowledge Representation?
In specific because anyone who speaks English can quickly learn Attempto Controlled English it will mean anyone will be able to contribute to the process of knowledge representation. Contributing to a knowledge base becomes very easy when you can simply describe in plain English (with restrictions) exactly the knowledge you want to represent. A semantic Wiki can be built out of this process rather easily.
How does Attempto Controlled English relate to Tauchain?
Tauchain requires input from the users to determine a formal specification. Attempto Controlled English is simple enough that anyone can describe a formal specification. For example sentences like:
Every customer inserts a card.
As you see above, we are dealing with types. Human is a type. Human is divided at a minimum between male and female subtypes.
And ACEWiki gives an example of what a formal specification could look like in Tauchain. The example being country, where the knowledge in this case is the concept of a country. Then we describe a country by filling in the Wiki collaboratively, where we know first of all that every country is an area, but then collaboratively we fill in the list of current persons who govern a country. Through this method we add to the knowledge base using the knowledge representation language ACE, and in the case of Tauchain we would be adding to potentially a formal specification which eventually is synthesized (program synthesis) by the Tauchain automatic programmer.
To learn more about Attempto Controlled English Wiki watch the video lecture
Kuhn, T. (2009). Controlled English for knowledge representation (Doctoral dissertation, University of Zurich).
Kuhn, T. (2014). A survey and classification of controlled natural languages. Computational Linguistics, 40(1), 121-170.
Kuhn, T. (2009). How controlled English can improve semantic wikis. arXiv preprint arXiv:0907.1245.
Ranta, A., Enache, R., & Détrez, G. (2010, September). Controlled language for everyday use: the molto phrasebook. In International Workshop on Controlled Natural Language (pp. 115-136). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Ross, Ronald G. 2013. Tabulation of lists in RuleSpeak—using “the following” clause. Business Rules Journal, 14(4):1–16.
White, C., & Schwitter, R. (2009, December). An update on PENG light. In Proceedings of ALTA (Vol. 7, pp. 80-88).
Web 2: http://attempto.ifi.uzh.ch/site/resources/
Fuente / Source: Original post written by Dana Edwards. Published on Steemit: Using Controlled English as a Knowledge Representation language. April 4, 2017.
A less understood feature of Tauchain is the feature called "program synthesis" in academic literature. This is a feature that as far as I know no one else in the crypto community is investigating. This feature of program synthesis when combined with the knowledge based AI discussed in my previous posts(1,2), would allow Tauchain to leverage the trend of big data. As the collective knowledge base of Tauchain expands, the capability of this automated programmer will improve. The automatic programmer will reason over an increasing collective knowledge base to allow Tauchain to in a sense "program itself". Smart contract developers will gain piece of mind knowing that their smart contracts are formally verified (for correctness) and users will be able to contribute to the development by joining in as a group to accurately describe the behavior of the code.Haz clic aquí para editar.
The impact of program synthesis and knowledge based AI on the smart contract development community.
Let's discuss what this means for smart contract developer. A smart contract developer today has to deal with creating a white paper, then a formal specification, then do the programming and formal verification themselves. This is very difficult for humans to do and as a result very few people are able to write secure smart contracts yet almost everyone can come up with some interesting idea for a smart contract. Program synthesis will allow individuals or a group of people to specify in a simple yet controlled natural language such as a simple English what they want (this creates the formal specification) and from this description of what they want the automatic programmer will handle the rest. The code will in a sense be written automatically by the AI by reasoning over a knowledge base which could include the knowledge necessary to produce the code for that smart contract.
AI learns to write its own code by stealing from other programs?
In summary, each participant in Tauchain will be able to speak to their "automated programmer" in a language they are comfortable with. They'll describe as accurately as they can the functioning and behavior of the program or smart contract. The automated programmer will then reason over a very large knowledge base and if it is smart enough it will automatically generate the code for the smart contract from their description. The participant will then either be satisfied with what was generated or not satisfied and update their description so as to trigger the process until they are satisfied. This is yet another breakthrough feature which Tauchain may be able to offer to the crypto-community in addition to potentially solving the knowledge acquisition bottleneck problem.
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Suggested readings to better understand the Tau ecosystem, Tau Meta Language, Tau-Chain and Agoras, and collaborate in the development of the project.
Lecturas sugeridas para entender mejor el ecosistema Tau, Tau Meta Lenguaje, Tau-Chain y Agoras, y colaborar en el desarrollo del proyecto.