''We live in a world in which no one knows the law.''
Ohad Asor, Sept 11, 2016
I continue herewith with sharing my contemporary state-of-grok  of the up to now four  scriptures of the aka newtau . Sorry for the delay, but it comes mostly from the efforts to contain the outburst of words, catalyzed by the very exegetic process of such a rich content, into a reader-friendly shorter form.
The subject of vivisection textographically identifies as the first three paragraphs of ''Tau and the Crisis of Truth'', Ohad Asor, Sep 11, 2016 .
The four core themes extracted are ennumerated bellow, with as modest as not to sidetrack the thought and to not spoil the original message, streak of comments of mine.:
As I guy who's immersed in Law for more than quarter of century  I can swear with both hands on my heart in the notion of unknowability of Law.
Since my youth years in the law school  I was asking myself how it is possible at all to have 'rule of law'  in case any legal system ever known required humans to operate !?
It seemed that the only requisite or categorcal difference between mere arbitrary 'rule of man'  and the 'rule of law' was that in some isolated cases some ruling men happened to be internally programmed by their morals  to produce 'rule of law' appearance effects by 'rule of man' means.
Otherwise 'rule of law' done via 'rule of man' poses extremely serious threats of law to be used by some to exploit and harm others.
In that line of thoughts my conclusion was that the Law is ... yet to come.
What we know as Law is not good networking protocol software of mankind as such, but rather we see comparatively rare examples of individually well programmed ... lawyers.
On the wings of a technological breakthrough, just like: flying came with the invention of airplanes and moonwalk needed the advent of rocketry, or to remember without to stay alive - the writing. The Law is an old dream. If we judge by the depth of the abyss of floklore - one of the humanity's most ancient dreams, indeed. Needless to repeat myself that this was what sucked me into Tau as relentlessly as a black hole spagetification  :)
The referred by Ohad frustration by Law of the great Franz Kafka  expressed in his book The Trial  becomes very understandable for Kafka's epoch lacking the comforting hope in a technology which we already have - the computers - and the overall progress in the field of logic, mathematics, engineering ... forming a self-reinforcing loop centered around this sci-tech of artificial cognition.
Similarly to the nuclear fusion, which is always few decades away, but the Fusion gap closes noticeably nowadays , we are standing on the cliff of a Legal gap.
The mankind's heavy involvement in cognition technologies, especially in the last several decades, outlined multiple promising directions of further development, which seem to bring us closer to abilities to compensate the fundamental deficiencies of Law and in fact to finally bring it into existence.
It took entire Ohad Asor, however, to identify the major reasons why the Law is bottlenecked out of our reach yet, and to propose viable means to bridge us through that Legal gap... The other side is already in sight.
It is in the first place the language to blame !
The human natural language . Our most important atribute as species. The mankind maker. The glue of society. It just emerged, it hasn't been created. It has rather ... patterns, vaguely conventional, than intentionally coined set of solid rules. There ain't firm rules to change its rules, either ... The natural human language is mostly wilderness of untamed pristine naked nature, dotted here and there with very expensive and hard to install and maintain ''arteftacts'' . Leave it alone out of the coercion of state mass media, mass education and national language institutes and it falls back into host of unintelligible dialects. Even when aided by the mnemonic amplifier which we call writing.
Ambiguity is characteristic of the natural language, a feature in poetry and politics, but a deadly bug in logic and law.
We'll put aside for now the postulate of impossibility of a single universal language to revisit it later when its exegetic turn comes. In another chapter onto another scripture. Likewise, not in this chapter we'll cover the neurological human bottlenecks which are targetted to be overcome by Tau. Lets observe the sequence of author's thoughts and to not fast forward.
Instead of that I'll dare to share with you my own hypothesis about why the natural human languages are so. (I'm smiling while I type this, cause I can visualize Ohad's reaction upon reading such frivolous lay narrative. I hope he being too busy will actually not to.) To say that the human languages are just too complex does not bring us any nearer to decent explanation. Many logic based languages are more than a match of the natural human ones in terms of expressiveness and complexity. It shouldn't be that reason.
My suspicion is rather that the natural human languages pose such a Moravec hardness  for being not exactly languages. Languages are conveyors of meaning. Human languages convey not meaning, but indexes or addresses or tags of mind states. The meaning is the mind state. Understanding between humans is function of not only shared learnt syntaxi, but also of shared lives. Of aggregation of similar mind states which to be referred by matching word keys.
If this is true it is another angle for grokking the solution of human users leaning towards the machine by use of human intelligible Machinish, instead of Tau waiting the language barrier to be broken and machines to start speaking and listening Humanish.
In a nutshell we yet wait the Law to come cuz Law is not doable in Humanish. Bad software. And the other side of the no-law coin is that the humans are no cognitive ASICs . We do congnition only meanwhile and in-order-to do what other animals do - to survive. Bad hardware.
In order law to become law it must become handsfree .
Not humans to read laws, but laws to read laws.
The technology to enable that looks on an arm's length.
Ok, so far we butchered the law and the language. What's left?
The nature and essence of human language brought one of the most harmful and devastating notions ever. Literally, a thought of mass destruction.
The ''crisis of truth''. The wasteland left by the toxic idea spilover of ''there is no one truth'' or even ''there ain't truth'' at all. This is not only abstract, philosophical problem. Billions of people actually got killed for somebody else's truth.
Not occasionally the philosophers who immersed themselves into this pool are nicknamed 'Deconstructivist' . Following back their epistemic genealogy, we see btw, that they are rooted rather in faith than in reasoning, but this is another story.
The general problem of truth, of which the problem of law is just a private case, opens up two important aspects:
Number one, is that all knowledge is conjectural to truth and that, truth is an asymptotic boundary - forever to close on but never to reach. Like speed of light or absolute zero. Number two, is that human languages make pretty lousy vehicles to chase the truth with.
If really words are just to match people's thoughts together, then there are thoughts without words and words without thoughts. Words mismatch thoughts, so how to expect they to bridge thoughts to things? Entire worlds on nonsensical wording emerge, dangerously disturbing the seamless unity of things and thoughts. Truth displaced.
''But can we at least have some island of truth in which social contracts can be useful and make sense?''
This island of shared truth is made of consensus  bedrock and synchronization  landmass.
Thuth and Law self-enforced. From within instead of by violence from without. And in self-referenial non-regressive way.
''We therefore remain without any logical basis for the process of rulemaking, not only the crisis of deciding what is legal and what is illegal." 
Peter Suber with his ''The Paradox of Self-Amendment: A Study of Law, Logic, Omnipotence, and Change''  proposed a rulemaking solution which he called Nomic .
''Nomic is a game in which changing the rules is a move.'' 
The merit of Nomic is that it really eliminates the illths of the infinite regress  of laws-of-changing-the-laws-of-changing-the-laws, ad infinitum, by use of transmutable self-referrenial rules. But Nomic suffers from number of issues - the first one, in the spotlight of that chapter, being the fact that we still remain with the “crisis of truth” in which there is no one truth, and the other ones - like sclability of sequencing and voting - we'll revisit in their order of appearance in the discussed texts.
The aka 'newtau'  went past the inherent limitations of the Nomic system and resolves the 'crisis of truth' problem.
The next few chapters will dive into Decidability and how it applies to provide solution to the problems described above.
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grok
 - https://steemit.com/tauchain/@karov/tauchain-exegesis-intro
 - https://steemit.com/tauchain/@karov/tauchain-exegesis-the-two-towers
 - http://www.idni.org/blog/tau-and-the-crisis-of-truth.html
 - http://www.behest.io/
 - https://steemit.com/blockchain/@karov/behest-for-tauchain
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rule_of_law
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tyrant
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morality
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spaghettification
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franz_Kafka
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Trial
 - https://www.amazon.com/Merchants-Despair-Environmentalists-Pseudo-Scientists-Antihumanism/dp/159403737X
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Official_language
 - https://steemit.com/blockchain/@karov/tau-through-the-moravec-prism
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Application-specific_integrated_circuit
 - https://www.etymonline.com/word/manipulation
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deconstruction
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consensus_decision-making
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synchronization
 - http://legacy.earlham.edu/~peters/writing/psa/index.htm
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nomic
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infinite_regress
 - the illustration is a painting courtecy of the author Georgi Andonov https://www.facebook.com/georgi.andonov.9674?tn-str=*F
What is Tauchain & Why It Could Be One of The Greatest Inventions of All Time (Part 1: Introduction). By Kevin Wong. Posted on Steemit. August 28, 2018.
In anticipation of Tau's demo some time around the end of this year, I'd be publishing a series of articles leading up to its release and beyond on Steem. If you would like to get to know what some of us think is going to be one of the greatest inventions of all time, I'd recommend you to check out http://wwwidni.org. It seems like a foundation that we've missed out on building together since the birth of the Internet.
A close resemblance of this project is the Semantic Web although some of us would place Tau as being far more ambitious in scope, oddly in a way that is likely more feasible with its ingenious use of a logic blockchain to power a decentralized social choice platform. I think it's impressive how singular the concept actually is, despite the unavoidable lengthy explanations that come paired with the many first-time features that Tau will provide.
Without further ado, let's explore this world-changing technology that is currently baking in the oven.
What is Tau?
Let's begin by first checking out the opening of IDNI's website at http://idni.org:-
Tau is a decentralized blockchain network intended to solve the bottlenecks inherent in large scale human communication and accelerate productivity in human collaboration using logic based Artificial Intelligence.
Sounds fairly straight-forward at first glance, and to me, it really stands out in the cryptosphere. We now have millions and billions of people using the Internet everyday, yet we still do not have any effective means of discussing and collaborating without being all over the place. Sure, we may have been pouring a lot of our time and effort into various platforms trying to connect with others, but have things been really any different compared to a time before the Internet?
The speed of information propagation has increased by orders of magnitude, and we can reach anyone on the planet now, but it's still really up to us to be present and be able to process information in our heads before turning them into relevant knowledge for our networks.
Expanding our social bandwidth.
Turns out, we have been experiencing a lot of trouble coming to terms with the chatter of billions of people in cyberspace. The bottlenecks inherent in our human bandwidth remain to be unsolved even with near-instantaneous communications. From governments to corporations and blockchain communities, we are all still facing the age-old problem of being unable to scale governance beyond the size of a classroom. It's just difficult to get our points across to many different people, let alone making sense of complex long-term discussions and making network-wide decisions collaboratively.
The introduction to The New Tau written by Ohad Asor explains our situation quite accurately:-
Some of the main problems with collaborative decision making have to do with scales and limits that affect flow and processing of information. Those limits are so believed to be inherent in reality such that they're mostly not considered to possibly be overcomed. For example, we naturally consider the case in which everyone has a right to vote, but what about the case in which everyone has an equal right to propose what to vote over?
So how is Tau actually going to solve our communications bottleneck? It will be through a highly bespoke and non-trivial implementation of a logic-based Artificial Intelligence (AI). It's worth noting that AI in this case is more of a buzzword for marketing-speak, and it is actually not of the same variety as the commercial implementations of deep machine learnig.
The distinction that must be made is that Tau is not the kind of AI that attempts to guess what the world is around them, including that of our opinions and the things we say or do. Instead, we must make the step towards communicating through Tau and what we choose to communicate will be as definite as computer programs. It can be thought of as a persistent logic companion that helps us improve the scale our reasoning, logic, and bandwidth.
We can take the time to share what we want to share on the Tau network and most of the logic-based connections and operations will happen in the background over time, even when we're not paying attention in-person. Again, the use of the word AI is a misnomer here because it usually paints the picture of AI agents attempting to mimic human autonomy. That's not what Tau is about. In this case, thinking about Tau as just a logic machine should provide better clarity on what it actually is.
The power of logic.
To expand, here's the second paragraph found in the opening of IDNI's website that explains Tau's paradigm in logic-based communications, http://idni.org:-
Currently, large scale discussions and collaborative efforts carried out directly between people are highly inefficient. To address this problem, we developed a paradigm which we call Human-Machine-Human communication: the core principle is that the users can not only interact with each other but also make their statements clear to their Tau client. Our paradigm enables Tau to deduce areas of consensus among its users in real time, allowing the network to boost communication by acting as an intermediary between humans. It does so by collecting the opinions and preferences its users wish to share and logically constructing opinions into a semantic knowledge base.
Indeed, Tau will offer a semantic social choice platform where we can discuss and store knowledge in a logical universe that helps us organize information, thereby empowering us in highly relevant ways. If you're worried about privacy, know that Tau is first-and-foremost designed as a local client with local processing and storage. The platform itself will be deployed as a decentralized peer-to-peer network, a place where we can connect and share our knowledge-base with anyone we desire.
The only price to pay in all of these is that we must speak in Tau-comprehensible languages, which can always be added and modified over time. A sophisticated language that can be defined over Tau may closely resemble natural languages, but it is really best to expect Tau as a machine-comprehensible language that only speaks in logic. Fortunately, logical formalism is something that we can easily deal with.
So it will be up to us to communicate with our local Tau client in a way that it'll understand our worldviews. When the machine understands what we share completely in some logical, mathematically-verifiable sense, it can then connect our dots with the rest of the Tau network, effectively boosting communications beyond the limits of human bandwidth, effectively scaling our points of discussion, consensus, and collaboration up to an infinite number of participants.
Code and consciousness.
Finally, we look at the last paragraph of Tau's introduction at http://idni.org
Able to deduce consensus and understand discussions, Tau can automatically generate and execute code on consensus basis, through a process known as code synthesis. This will greatly accelerate knowledge production and expedite most large scale collaborative efforts we can imagine in today's world.
Since Tau is a logic blockchain that powers a semantic social choice platform, we can leverage it to have both small and large-scale discussions about program specifications, detect points of consensus, and even generate software in the process. Being able to go from discussions to the realization of decentralized applications would mean inclusive code development for the masses. It's also a unique addition to decentralization that no other blockchain projects have even thought about.
Now that we may have come to a better understanding of Tau's emphasis on the use of logic in every part of its being, let's revisit the process description found in The New Tau to get closer to knowing what it really is about:-
We are interested in a process in which a small or very large group of people repeatedly reach and follow agreements. We refer to such processes as Social Choice. We identify five aspects arising from them, language, knowledge, discussion, collaboration, and choice about choice. We propose a social choice mechanism by a careful consideration of these aspects.
In short, Tau is a decentralized peer-to-peer network that takes the shape of a social choice platform, and it can become anything that we want it to be, for as long as it's expressible within the self-defining and decidable logics of FO[PFP] with PSPACE-complexity. This precise specification is required to satisfy the very definition of Tau as seen in the excerpt above. Tau is also intended to be a compiler-compiler.
This is taking application-generality into a completely different direction compared to blockchains that are built specifically with turing-completeness in mind, like Ethereum. Relevant literature to check out: Finite Model Theory.
Understanding each other.
While it's all highly technical and difficult to grasp in one seating, perhaps a better way to truly begin to understand Tau is to spend some time studying its main features. Or just wait for the product release. In any case, I will try to explore these topics in the future if my brain can still handle it:-
The more I think about Tau, the more I think that it is (poetically) a logical conclusion to the way the Internet works as a protocol. It even lives and breaths logic. Not just any kind of logic, but specifically, logics that can define their own semantics and is decidable. Tau is intelligently designed to be a truly dynamic and ever-evolving blockchain.
When the Tau community intends to make changes to the network code, rules or protocols, they will simply need to express these opinions and perspectives in a compatible language over the network. The self defining logic of the Tau blockchain network will enable it to detect the consensus among these opinions and automatically amend its own code to reflect this consensus from block to block. Unlike the common method of voting, Tau’s approach will take into account the perspectives of the entire community, where people will be free to vote and propose what to vote for in real time. This unique ability of Tau is the only decentralized solution to create a truly dynamic protocol.
Now you might think: Tau seems like a powerful tool but will it be too difficult to use for most people? There might be some learning curve involved for sure, and it'd be similar to learning a new language in the beginning. Those of us who learn to use it well enough to scale our discussions and collaborative works will likely gain a significant edge over those who are not using the platform. I'd imagine plenty of projects and communities around the world being able to overcome some of their obstacles in development through Tau. Hence, it may be fair to expect that market forces will gravitate towards the platform just like how we're all using the Internet these days.
Until the next post.
I've been thinking about Tau almost everyday for the past many months now, and I will admit that its deeper technicalities are still way out of my league, although I've made sure to word them broadly out the best I can. If you like what I do, please consider sharing this post and voting on my witness account on Steem. For more info, check out my recent witness announcement post.
As always, thanks for reading!
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Music tracklist by Magical Mystery Mix
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Not to be taken as financial advice.
Always do your own research.
Tauchain 101: Essential Reading On One Of The Most Revolutionary Blockchain Project Under The Radar...By Rok Sivante. Published on Steemit. August 3, 2018.
Amidst countless blockchain projects hyping themselves up as "the next big thing," there are a few that have been working under the radar that hold the promise - not in word, but in substance - of truly being revolutionary game-changers.
Such ventures have not yet often come into the spotlight. Partly, due to that their founders have focused first on the fundamentals of creating something that speaks for itself versus the all-too-common approach of prioritizing sensationalistic marketing. And partly, because the degree of innovativeness they represent - in tandem with a complexity in scope of the larger visions and implications of their success - does not always lend itself to an easy understanding upfront.
One such project - still very early on in its development, yet holding transformative potentials no less grand than those of Bitcoin and Ethereum as they birthed and evolved the blockchain landscape:
Until recently, with the launch of a new website that has successfully managed to articulate the project's vision much more clearly, understanding what Tauchain is striving to accomplish was a domain only a very few, highly-intelligent technically-inclined dared to tread. And prior to December 2018, there was no code - only an unproven concept spearheaded by a single Israeli developer, Ohad Asor, whom nearly all who've managed to connect with have declared to be one of the most brilliant geniuses they've ever met, possibly ahead of his time.
Just as Bitcoin introduced blockchain as an innovation radically altering the trajectory of our societal, economic, and technological evolution - and Ethereum continued in suit with its upgrades to expand in developing upon the vision with entirely new sets of capabilities for developing a range of decentralized applications and smart contracts - so too, may Tauchain be such a platform whose success proves comparable, the impact of which may bring quantum leaps in the Blockchain Revolution.
How and where to start in describing Tauchain...?
Well, were we to begin with the technical side of things, it'd be likely to lose 98% of the audience. So perhaps, a better starting point might be the bigger picture:
This generalized overview, however, still only barely scratches the surface.
While the intended ends may be that of a generic concept enabling drastically-increased efficiency in global collaboration, the means by which such is to be achieved entails a number of innovative component developments that each hold great significance and implications of their own.
While each may require deeper exploration to better grasp and begin piecing together into the bigger picture, the Tauchain website now offers an overview of key features which account for just some of what it to differentiate it from other blockchain platforms - and enable new collaborative capabilities not currently possible with currently existing technologies:
While it'd be possible to expand upon each in great detail - both in regards to the functionality and implications for their applications - this particular piece of writing is to serve as a basic introduction to some of the best, most-easily-accessible content written on Tauchain to-date.
And as we transition into that content, we shall begin with a quote summarizing the core essence of Tauchain, as approached from but one angle:
This project created by Ohad Asor is really ambitious and aims to create the internet of knowledge.
Some people would label it as an Artificial Intelligence, but according to the creator this is something totally different. Summing up and to understand me, Tau-chain is a tool that knows how to interpret any information and deduce any consensus. This tool can be used in any field, judicial, political, academic, social, scientific and also without limits assembly from 2 people to a million for example.
~ @capitanart, from "My experience with Tau-chain"
The collection begins with two selections from Steemit's @trafalgar.
If anyone has successfully managed to distill the essence of the Tauchain vision into words that'd serve as a foundational Tauchain 101 intro, it'd have been him in these two excellent pieces:
What Is Tau? - My Only Other Crypto Investment
The Power of Tau - Scaling the Creation of Knowledge
Next, come three short articles from @flis, which may not go into any new details beyond the three above, yet offer a slightly different yet simplified perspective to reinforce the clarification of Tauchain's key concepts:
The vision of Tau-Chain, a blockchain based self-amending platform designed to scale human collaboration and knowledge building
How Tau-Chain can be implemented in practice
Tau Chain vs. Tezos - which platform will provide a better solution?
~ design credit: @voronoi
Next, come a few selections from @dana-edwards, who has likely been the single individual who has translated the highly-complex technical vision of Ohad Asor into a more-approachable nature from which non-academics may begin and better understanding a Tauchain.
Quite possibly the first to write of developments and share outside of the project’s IRC channel and Bitcoin talk thread, Dana has one of the most comprehensive grasps publicized anywhere on the project, and his writings continue to serve in establishing bridges for more people to discover and deepen their own comprehensions of the innovations Tauchain represents to not only computer science and the blockchain revolution, but cultural & societal evolution as well.
What follows are a collection of his writings related to the project which excellently piece together key ideas and insights, from which the gaps may be filled in to grasp a firmer idea of just how significant these developments could be and what the bigger picture of their success might look like:
What Tauchain can do for us: Collaborative Serious Alternate Reality Games
What Tauchain can do for us: Finding the world's biggest problems
Tauchain: The automated programmer
Artificial morality: Moral agents and Tauchain
What Tauchain can do for us: Effective Altruism + Tauchain
Collaborative Alternate Reality Games + Tauchain = UBAs (Universal Basic Assets)?
Tauchain and Tezos, why adaptability is the key to surviving in a fast changing environment
My commentary on Ohad's latest blog post: "Agoras to TML"
The following three pieces are not introductory-level, and may likely require a background in computer programming to understanding. However, for anyone reading who might be interested in diving deeper into the technical side of the project, they are included here:
Tauchain is not easy to understand but here are some concepts to know to track Ohad's progress
For all who are researching Tauchain (TML) to understand how it works, a nice video!
More on partial evaluation - How does partial evaluation work and why is it important?
~ design credit: @crypticalias
One other writer covering Tauchain needing to be mentioned: @karov.
While not the easiest to read and understand, the Steemit account of Georgi Karov is undoubtedly one of the most consistent sources of coverage on the project.
A lawyer by-trade and currently one of the three members of the core team, @karov's insights into the project are reliably detailed, expansive into philosophical territory, and fascinating.
Although none of his articles have been included in this introductory collection, those who may be interested to keep up-to-date with coverage on the project would be well-advised to follow his Steemit blog - and/or read backwards through the last few months of his posts there, as the blog is nearly-entirely Tauchain-related content.
Lastly, though not least:
Coming from one of Steemit's most brilliant early-adopter-minds, @kevinwong, this one is a quick read in itself with some key points worth factoring in to a proper assessment of the project. And - far lengthier than the post itself - the comments thread also contains some gold:
Is Tauchain Agoras in Good Hands?
And to wrap up with another excellent quotes from design consultant to the project, @capitanart - who is another to follow for updates:
The goal of Tau is to create a supermind, to solve the limitations inherent in human communication on a large scale.
Able to deduce consensus and understand discussions, Tau can generate and execute code automatically based on consensus, through a process known as code synthesis. This will greatly accelerate the production of knowledge and streamline most of the large-scale collaborative efforts we can imagine in today's world.
~ design credit: @overdye
''Tau solves the problems from the Tower of Babel to the Tower of Basel''
- an early 21st century yet undisclosable author
Okay, dearest friends, lets pull sleeves up and start with it. Vivisection of the Scriptures? Revelation by transfiguration? Pulling the Tau from the ocean of wisdom out on the dry no-Maths-land? I hope not.
The quote above on first glance sounds so pompously biblical, but in fact it denotes the crystal clear and simple practical and mundane rationale of Tau which I already tried to approach from few angles , .
It is about the hierarchic bottleneck of one unscaling ,  Humanity. Take the hint about leveling of the Towers as a poetic symbol of elimination of the social 'verticality' -- the hierarchies as a so far necessary evil to compensate certain innate neurological limitations , , ,  -- and reforming  the network we are embedded into and usually call mankind or society or economy or world into an as geodesic as possibly possible one . For the sake of its own functional programmatic optimization .
Notice that towers leveling is not by demolition, but by uplifting the overall landscape level to and above the tower tops, turning them into deep roots or support pylons of asymptotically geodesic society .
Apparently, mentioning the Gate of God  denotes the unmixing  of languages & mentioning the apex global fiat settlement institution  - the excelling of the current fiat procrustics  i.e. the economy aspect.
That is: TML to Agoras . The first and last of the totally six identified aspects or steps of the social choice  as addressed by what we call Tau.
''our six steps of language, knowledge, discussion, collaboration, choice, and knowledge economy''
These aspects deserve of course separate zoom-in exegetic chapters and they'll definitely get it. I promise. And not only they.
Any exegesis of Tau unavoidably must start with scroll back and tracking down of the full history of the development so far. As a zoom out to see the full picture and to identify the dominant features of the landscape relief.
You, I reckon, already noticed this retrodictive inclination of mine , that in my mind the notion of ''Timeline of Development'' can not be by any logic just a handful of milestone promises thrown into the future, but it is a must to account for the up to now trajectory, too! No future without past.
It all started as Zennet , continued as Tau-chains  and 'turned' into aka 'newtau' , , , .
Wait! A New Tau?
Excuse me, Ohad, but I personally do not buy that and I said it many times. There ain't old and new Tau. The situation is much more straightforward and grokkable . Here it is:
Lotsa guts, balls, butt, brains or whatever human offal... is required for each of us to admit a mistake made in our everyday life. Generally quite a strength is needed to even look ourselves into the mirror...
It takes a whole Ohad though, to keep all oneself's work totally public and transparent even on the full and unedited live record of the infil  into entire branch of mathematics  and then throwing it all away as untauful. We witnessed that reported in real time!
Did this change the ends? No. But sorted out the means to an end.
Was it a 'mistake'? In no case. It was duly delivered R&D effort.
Was oldtau looking promising on first glance? Yes, of course it did.
Did it survive the Ohad's R&D 'crash-testing'? No, it didn't.
Was it a ''juice worth the sqweeze''? It was.
Was it a job well done? Absolutely.
The oldtau materials are for me legacy jewels. Like those dinosaur bugs trapped into blobs of amber .
Development is a process, not just results shipping. Related like cooking and serving.
Studying the zoom-out dev map we observe these few major landmarks:
The Zennet province is all right. Its gently rolling hills gradually merge into the Tau lands proper with the inevitable realization that a 'world supercomputer' can not be a Tauless thing. Zennet lives in Tau with .:
''... having a decentralized search engine requires Zennet-like capabilities, the ability to fairly rent (and rent-out) computational resources, under acceptable risk in the user's terms (as a function of cost). Our knowledge market will surely require such capabilities, and is therefore one of the three main ingredients of Agoras... hardware rent market...''
We move over through the oldtau wastelands  where the burnt ruins of MLTT  lie scattered - rough oldtau location-on-the-map indicator is the fall of 2015 with
''Tau as a Generalized Blockchain'' - posted Oct 17, 2015, 6:33 AM [updated Oct 17, 2015, 6:49 AM]
and then we reach the fertile gardens of newtau  in the fall of 2017:
''The New Tau'' - posted Dec 31, 2017, 12:27 AM [updated Dec 31, 2017, 12:28 AM]
Hmm. Apparently we crossed a watershed. Which relief feature it was? - The ridge  of:
''Tau and the Crisis of Truth'' - posted Sep 10, 2016, 8:25 PM [updated Sep 10, 2016, 8:28 PM]
Tau sorts out the Towers. I hope that the synopsis in this short chapter of Exegesis helped to sort out Tau dev in time as a navigation lookup tool.
Software is nothing but states of hardware. There is that intimate deep, not yet codified into a neat compact of logic, connection between Gödel , Heisenberg  and Laws of thermodynamics .
Tau keeps us off these traps.
I do not dare to state that someday we won't have the command on infinities and to play with them with the ease  of
''... a boy playing on the seashore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.''
In fact, quite the opposite I'd rather take it as inevitability someday we to conquer the Cantor  expanses and to venture far even beyond that. To transcale  the transfinite. Like Hilbert  said it.:
''Aus dem Paradies, das Cantor uns geschaffen, soll uns niemand vertreiben können. (From the paradise, that Cantor created for us, no-one can expel us.)''
But it takes ... finitary vehicles of DECIDABILITY to conquer the transfinitary outer spaces. Because, in order to dear to dream to tame the infinities, we must first harness and get full command of finities.
Including of ourselves. Tau is ''understanding each other''. Without Tau we are ... others to ourselves.
Imperare sibi maximum imperium est.
The Power of Tau - Scaling the Creation of Knowledge. By Trafalgar. Posted on Steemit. December 31, 2017.
Ohad Asor, creator of Tau Chain/Agoras, has recently published the long awaited blog post detailing his vision for what very likely is the most ambitious project in the crypto space: Tau.
Tau will accelerate human endeavors by overcoming long ingrained limitations in our collaborative processes; limitations which we rarely even question.
The Problem of Social Governance
Take social governance, for example. As individuals, we have opinions over a wide variety of social issues. Perhaps you feel that the speed limit on certain roads is too high, or that programming should be a compulsory subject at public schools, or that everyone would benefit if cryptocurrencies were officially recognized and endorsed by the state.
However, you have no idea how to get these concerns across to the general public. I mean you could try writing a letter to your local representative or signing a petition but ultimately that's unlikely to gain much traction. Meanwhile, the very same issues that seems to have divided the nation over the past decade remain at the forefront of our political debate. Immigration, climate change, abortion, gun control etc. are all important issues of course, but very little progress have been made considering the amount of time, resources and attention that have been devoted to them.
So the problem with traditional forms of social governance, such as democratic voting, is apparent: on the one hand it has difficulty identifying and addressing the wide range of opinions different people hold, on the other hand, even with respect to the small number of issues that do end up bubbling up to the surface, it isn't particularly efficient at detecting consensus.
The central cause of this problem is that current modes of discussion are not scalable. There are inherent limitations in the way we're able to communicate our views across to each other; namely, human ability to comprehend and organize information is the main bottleneck. We cannot possible follow multiple conversations at once, or recall everyone's propositions once there are more than a handful of people in the mix. This is why most collaborative decision making bodies in practice are generally quite small in number: the President's cabinet, Supreme Court Justices, boardroom directions of a fortune 100 company etc.; you just can't have a productive discussion with 50 people. Our entire civilization is structured around this very limitation: discussions don't scale.
Scaling Collaborative Discussions Under Tau
Imagine if we can overcome this limitation; what will it mean for social governance? By using a self defining, decidable logic, the Tau network is easily able to keep track of every user's propositions and detect consensus automatically. Note that making a proposition is exactly the same as voting for that very same proposition: when you're proposing 'dogs should always be on a leash in public unless in a park' you're in effect putting in a vote for such a proposition. This way, countless issues, regardless of how technical or niche, can be assessed through the network concurrently, and social consensus can be detected on the fly. The Tau network can scale social governance by overcoming one of the greatest limitation in human communication of ideas by delegating the task of logically making sense of everybody's propositions to the computer. A simple use case of this will be the rules of the Tau network itself: through a self defining logic, Tau is able to detect consensus among its users from block to block, altering its own rules to conform to the choices of the user base.
The benefits of scaling discussions are not limited to just a more efficient form of social governance. Logic isn't merely about detecting surface level consensus, the network can easily form further deductions from everyone's propositions. If one states 'all men are mortal' and 'Socrates is a man', one can deduce that 'Socrates is mortal.' But deductions can be very deep and non trivial. Imagine if we had a group of 1000 mathematicians all inputting their mathematical insight as propositions. Tau can rapidly detect who agrees with whom on what, and deduce every logical consequence of their combined wisdom; in effect arriving to new truths and insights. In other words, Tau greatly accelerates the production of new knowledge. This will, of course, also work if you have physicists, doctors, engineers, computer scientists, indeed experts in every field working together on the platform. By scaling collaborative discussions in a logical network, Tau is able to scale the creation of knowledge.
When Tau comes into effect, any company, government, and indeed any organization not using this new network will be rendered obsolete. Tau aims to become an indispensable technology.
And this is only the alpha of Tau.
I will talk about the beta in a future posts. The beta will revolve around not just the scaling of discussions and consensus, but the automation and execution of code based of the results of those discussion. For more information on code synthesis and more, please read Ohad's blog. Also, do check out my introduction to Tau here if you missed it.
You can invest in Tau through buying Agoras tokens on Bittrex.
I am not affiliated or paid by the project. These represent my own subjective views. Tau/Agoras is the only other crypto project apart from Steem in which I see an extraordinary future, and I am merely sharing that with fellow Steemians here.
Ohad Asor's New Tau Blog
IRC Chat: Where you may ask Ohad himself technical questions
Tau Chinese QQ Group: 203884141
What is the Knowledge Acquisition Bottleneck problem? By Dana Edwards. Posted on Steemit. March 29, 2017.
Now that we know what knowledge representation is, and what knowledge bases are, and how the knowledge base is relied upon in a knowledge based system of artificial intelligence (KR+KB+Inference engine), we can move on to discussing one of the open problems.
The Knowledge Acquisition Bottleneck problem.
Many people already know about the familiar Byzantines generals problem in computer science. We also know how the Nakamoto consensus in Bitcoin provided a novel example of a solution. The Knowledge Acquisition Bottleneck problem is one of the problems plaguing AI and is what limits or seems to be a limit on the strength of artificial intelligence. One of the main problems in artificial intelligence is that knowledge formation typically requires domain experts who can contribute to the knowledge base. The Cyc project attempted to solve the problem of scaling up the knowledge base but is suffering from the bottleneck. The bottleneck can be summarized below [taken from Wagner, 2006]:
The paper from which this summary was pulled "Breaking the Knowledge Acquisition Bottleneck Through Conversational Knowledge Management" also offers a solution called collaborative conversational knowledge management. This is the same solution which Tauchain will attempt to utilize in a more sophisticated way. Tauchain will allow for collaborative theory formation. In the paper this quote explains a key concept:
We see this concept in how Wikipedia works to manage knowledge. We know Wikipedia is indeed not without flaws but it does manage knowledge. In their conclusion we see this quote:
Tauchain by design will be collaborative and allow for collaborative theory formation. This would mean anyone will be able to contribute to the knowledge base with relative ease. In addition, it will have knowledge management properties built in, and if the knowledge acquisition bottleneck problem can be solved then it will have a huge impact. For one, the problems which prevent knowledge based AI from scaling could be resolved if this bottleneck is removed.
DARPA has attempted to solve the Knowledge Acquisition Bottleneck problem utilizing high performance knowledge bases (HPKBs)and Rapid Knowledge Formation yet failed. Cyc has attempted to solve the same problem and has failed. The semantic web has yet to take off because this problem stands in the way. Will Tauchain succeed where these other attempts have failed? I think it is a strong possibility which is why I'm excited about the implications should Tauchain successfully be built.
Lenat, D. B., Prakash, M., & Shepherd, M. (1985). CYC: Using common sense knowledge to overcome brittleness and knowledge acquisition bottlenecks. AI magazine, 6(4), 65.
Wagner, C. (2006). Breaking the Knowledge Acquisition Bottleneck Through Conversational Knowledge Management. Information Resources Management Journal, 19(1), 70-83.
Web 1. https://www.quora.com/What-is-knowledge-acquisition-bottleneck
Web 2. http://www.igi-global.com/dictionary/knowledge-acquisition-bottleneck/49991
Web 3: http://www.tauchain.org
Web 4: https://steemit.com/tauchain/@dana-edwards/how-to-become-a-stakeholder-in-agoras-and-indirectly-tauchain
Fuente / Source: Original post written by Dana Edwards. Published on Steemit: What is the Knowledge Acquisition Bottleneck problem?
What is Tau?
Tau is a decentralized network that can amend itself based on decisions f its users. Tau will provide a platform for users to reach agreements and decisions, in the largest scale seen so far. A social platform to reach agreements: Tau is a blockchain based platform that will allow for on-the-fly logical consensus detection which enables it to scale some of the largest bottlenecks to human advancement including social governance and knowledge creation. By using a self defining and decidable logical framework, Tau is the first platform able to gather data voluntarily submitted by its users and logically deduce valuable knowledge over a network secured with the blockchain technology. What this means is that in effect, we can scale collaborative endeavors between thousands of users to greatly accelerate the production of knowledge. The only dynamic decentralized social network: When Tau’s community will face a decision to change Tau or its blockchain protocol, they will just need to express their opinions and perspectives, like we do today in the social networks, and Tau will self-amend itself based on users’ agreement. Considering the perspectives of the entire community (unlike voting) is the only way to reach a decentralized decision that benefits all users. Tau’s ability to scale discussions is the only decentralized solution to create a true dynamic protocol.
What is Agoras?
Agoras is a cryptocurrency and an integral platform built over the Tau network and will serve as the primary economy. While Tau creates a true knowledge society, Agoras is about creating true monetary knowledge, by powering the ecosystem built via Tau. Agoras will be used to execute the applications of Tau, Zennet (Computational Resource Market), derivatives trading platform and further developments to be built as part of Tau’s ecosystem. Through the power of Tau, we envision the possibility of fully autonomous businesses operating over the Agoras virtual economy.
Special fields: Language, Knowledge, Economy, Collaboration, Discussion, Choice, Blockchain, Cryptocurrency, Logic, Dynamic Protocol, Decentralized Network, Internet of Languages
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Suggested readings to better understand the Tau ecosystem, Tau Meta Language, Tau-Chain and Agoras, and collaborate in the development of the project.
Lecturas sugeridas para entender mejor el ecosistema Tau, Tau Meta Lenguaje, Tau-Chain y Agoras, y colaborar en el desarrollo del proyecto.