If Money = Memory, if Society = a Super Computer, if Computation is in Physical Systems, what is a Decentralized Operating System? By Dana Edwards. Posted on Steemit. October 24, 2018.
These concepts are not often discussed so let's have the discussion from the beginning. The first concept to think about is pancomputationalism or put another way the ubiquitous computers which exist everywhere in our environment. We for example can look at physical systems living and non living and see computations taking place all around us. If you look at rocks and trees you can see memory storage. If you look at DNA you can see code and if you look at viruses you can see microscopic programmers adding new codes to DNA. Even when we look at the weather such as a hurricane it is computing.
If you look at nature you see algorithms. You will see learners (yes the same as in AI), also in nature. The process is basically the same for all learning. Consider that everything which is physical is also digital. Consider that the universe is merely information patterns.
If we look at society we can also think of society as a computer. What does society compute though? One way people talk about a society is as a complex adaptive system, but this is also how people might talk about the human body. The human body computes with the purpose of maintaining homeostasis, to persist through time and reproduce copies of itself over time. The human brain computes to promote the survival of the human body. Just as viruses pass on codes to our DNA, the human brain is infected with mind viruses which are called memes. Memes are pieces of information which can alter physically how the brain is working.
The mind isn't limited to the brain. The mind is all the resources the brain can leverage to compute. In other words a person has a brain to compute with but when language was invented this allowed a person to compute not just using their own brain but using the environment itself. To draw on a cave is to use the cave to enhance the memory of the brain. To use mathematics is to use language to enhance the ability of the brain to compute by relying on external storage and symbol manipulation. To use a computer with a programming language is essentially to use mathematics only instead of writing on the cave wall we are writing in 1s and 0s. The mind exists to augment the brain in a constant feedback loop where the brain relies on the mind to improve itself and adapt. If there were no external reality the brain would have no way to evolve itself and improve.
A society in the strictly human sense of the word is the aggregation of minds. This can be at minimum all the human minds in that society. As technology improves the mind capacity increases because each human can remember more, can access more computation resources, can in essence use technology to continuously improve their mind and then leverage the improved mind to improve their brain. The Internet is the pinnacle of this kind of progress but it's obviously not good enough. While the Internet allows for the creation of a global mind by connecting people, things, and minds, it does nothing to actually improve the feedback loop between the mind and the brain, nor does it really offer what could be offered.
Bitcoin came into the picture and perhaps we can think of it as a better memory. A decentralized memory where essentially you can have money. The problem is that money is a very narrow application. It is the start, just as to learn to write on the cave wall was a start, but it's not ambitious enough in my opinion.
Humans in the current blockchain or crypto community do not have many ways where human computation can be exchanged. Human computation is just as valuable as non biological machine computation because there are some kinds of computations which humans can do quite easily which non biological machines still cannot do as well. Translation for example is something non biological machines have a difficult time with but human beings can do well. This means a market will be able to form where humans can sell their computation to translate stuff. If we look at Amazon Mechanical Turk we can see many tasks which humans can do which computer AI cannot yet do, such as labeling and classifying stuff. In order for things to go to the next level we will need markets which allow humans to contribute human computer and or human knowledge in exchange for crypto tokens.
The concept of a decentralized operating system is interesting. First if there are a such thing as social computations (such as collaborative filtering, subjective ranking, waze, etc) then what about the new paradigm of social dispersed computing?
The question becomes what do we want to do with this computing power? Will we use it to extend life? Will we use it to spread life into the cosmos? Will we use it to become wise? To become moral? To become rational? If we want to focus on these kinds of concerns then we definitely need something more than Bitcoin, Ethereum, or even EOS. While EOS does seem to be pursuing the strategy of a decentralized operating system which seems to be the correct course, it does not get everything right.
One problem is as I mentioned before the importance of the feedback loops between minds and brains. The reason I always communicate on the concept of external mind or extended mind is based on that fact that it is the mind which creates the immune system to protect the brain from harmful memes. The brain keeps the body alive. The brain is not really capable of rationality, or morality, or logic, and relies on the mind to achieve this. The mind is essentially all the computation resources that the brain can leverage.
EOS has the problem in the sense that it doesn't seem to improve the user. The user can connect, can join, can earn or sell, can participate, but unless the user can become wiser, more rational, more moral, then EOS has limits. EOS does have Everpedia which is quite interesting but again there are still problems. What can EOS do to improve people in society and thus improve society, if society is a computer and is in need of being upgraded?
Well if society is a computer first what does society compute? What should it compute? I don't even know how to answer those questions. I could suggest that if computation is a commodity along with data then whichever decentralized operating systems that do compete and exist will compete for these commodities. The total brain power of a society is just as important as the amount of connectivity. And the mind of the society is the most important part of a society because it is what can allow the society to become better over time, allow the people in the society to thrive, allow the life forms to continue to evolve avoid extinction.
A decentralized operating system on a technical level would have a kernel or something similar to it. This is the resource management part. For example Aragon promises to offer a decentralized OS and it too mentions having a kernel. A true decentralized operating system has to go further and requires autonomous agents. Autonomous agents which can act on behalf of their owners are philosophically speaking the extended mind. But the resources of a society is still finite, has to be managed, and so a kernel would provide for an ability to allow for resource management.
The total computation ability of a society is likely a massive amount of resources. A lot more than just to connect a bunch of CPUs together. Every member of the society which can compute could participate in a computation market. Of course as we are beginning to see now, the regulators seem concerned about certain kinds of social computations such as prediction markets. So it is unknown how truly decentralized operating systems would be handled but my guess is that if designed right then they could be pro-social, be capable of producing augmented morality by leveraging mass computation, and also by leveraging human computation be able to be compliant. To be compliant is simply to understand the local laws but these can be programmed into the autonomous agents if people think it is necessary.
What is more important is that if a law is clearly bad, and people have enhanced minds, then it will be very clear why the law is bad. This clarity will help people to dispute and seek to change bad laws through the appropriate channels. If there is more wisdom, due to insights from big data, from data scientists, etc, then there can be proposals for law changes which are much wiser and more intelligent. This is something specifically that people in the Tauchain community have realized (that technology can be used to improve policy making).
A lot is still unknown so these writings do not provide clear answers. Consider this just a stream of consciousness about concepts I am deeply contemplating. This is also a way to interpret different technologies.
Tauchain: The Social Dispersed Computer introduced as a Social Network? By Dana Edwards. Posted on Steemit. October 12, 2018.
What might a Tau Operating System via a Tau Social Dispersed Computer function like?
We know from tauchain.org that the first iteration of Tau is to be a discussion platform not too dissimilar from Facebook. Of course this would simply be the front end or the "face" of what could behind the scenes evolve toward a social dispersed computer complete with a dispersed operating system. The resources have to be managed and a kernel could provide for this in a manner not dissimilar to what we see with EOS. The Agoras or AGRS token specifically represents "resources" as it is the tokenization of resources for whichever application Tauchain will use.
TML provides the basis from which to create the necessary languages to produce a dispersed operating system computer. Zennet even has an algorithm which Ohad himself worked on for the purpose of calculating the resource requirements. All minds will be able to contribute towards the computational resources (at least in theory) of Tauchain.
Because of Zennet there may in fact not be a limit to the amount of computation resources which we could throw at the super computer. It will of course depend on resource management which is where a kernel likely comes into play because any smart apps built to run on Tau will have to ask for resources. Resource management is one of the core functions of a kernel and of an operating system which is why I think it is likely that Tauchain will have one. I think the Ethereum route shows problems with scaling as applications also have to compete for resources in a way where the network cannot self manage it. Cryptokitties for example can render the whole Ethereum network lagged and if this is a computer then it could mean a nonsense app could disrupt more critical apps.
A prime example of a potential smart app for Tauchain
An example (which may or may not be feasible) is a health and fitness app. The app in theory could allow any user to provide data such as genetic information, blood test results, exercise tracking, blood pressure, blood sugar and anything else. All of this could provide a feedback loop back to the patient on how to improve their health over time based on the knowledge of Tau. As technology gets better the users could add more devices to provide more data for a better feedback loop. As technology evolves FGPAs could be added to meet the demand for calculations and storage can be rented as well.
An operating system could give priority to this kind of app by load balancing the resources. How would it know to do this? Tau could learn the morals, legal ramifications, and a consensus can emerge that health related apps deserve a premium access to resources because it can save lives.
Voluntary compliance as a necessary feature. By Dana Edwards. Posted in Steemit. September 29, 2018.
Voluntary compliance in moral alignment with the participant
Every platform which is decentralized in my opinion should allow it's users to comply with the laws of their local jurisdiction to the degree which each user thinks is moral. The platform should not enforce the laws of any specific jurisdiction or remove the ability of any user to comply with the laws of their local jurisdiction. This means if a user would like to track and pay taxes the platform should provide a means for users to do this. This means if users would like to go through KYC before interacting with ICOs so that their accounts are whitelisted by banks they should be allowed. This also means that if a user thinks that a certain regulation or rule or law is immoral that they should be allowed to make up their own mind and take their own risks.
In other words platforms should not choose for users what is right and wrong. Platforms should simply provide the tools so that each person can decide how much risk they are willing to accept in alignment with their morality. The ability to comply with the law is necessary for mainstreamability. Mainstreamability ability is about winning the long war rather than the little battle. In order for crypto to have the maximum positive impact on future generations it must go mainstream and escape from the fringe use cases. This applies as much to Steem as it does to Ethereum as it does to Tauchain. Mainstreamability are the key elements which enable mainstream adoption success.
Legal contracts as tokens
Compliance can be modularized, tokenized, decentralized. Legal contracts can become tokens. The risk (and it is real) of money laundering or rogue nations violating sanctions can be reduced by decentralizing AML/KYC. At the same time regional locks in my opinion are one of the worst ideas and should not be technically enforced. Once again compliance should be voluntary but always allowed.
What does it mean to voluntarily comply? A participant can choose to comply to reduce their risks. The participant who does not comply is willing to take the risk of non-compliance. This means compliance is a means of risk reduction. But in a decentralized network such as a decentralized exchange the risk is entirely on the users. The users can decide (and only the users) which level of risk is best for them. Developers of the platform should have no responsibility to decide for the users of the platform what is morally right or what risks are acceptable or unacceptable to take.
Let's use Tauchain to save our own lives and the lives of others: The life saving potential of Tauchain. By Dana Edwards. Posted on Steemit. September 10, 2018.
In this post I'm going to discuss what I think is one of the main reasons why I want Tauchain to exist. This is a reason I think many or perhaps most people can relate to. It starts with the question of how can we save our own lives using our own effort? It evolves into the question of how can we save lives in general by augmenting our efforts as much as technologically feasible?
1 out of 2 (around 50%) will be diagnosed with invasive cancer
The current statistics reveal that the highest scale we have a 50% chance of developing cancer in our life time. This can be lower according to some recent statistics (closer to 30% or in some cases 40% but still this is very high). The fact is if we are each in a room then about 1 out of every 3 of us in the best case will get cancer someday. And 100% of us will know someone who has cancer someday. So there is a very high chance that someone we care about a lot will develop cancer and do we want to be in a position where we didn't do all we could to have a capability of saving their life? It could even be you who developers cancer and would you want to be in the position where you can say you dedicated some of your resources toward finding a cure?
Cancer is one of those global problems that most human beings want to eradicate. It is not politically controversial to want to cure cancer. It is also something that Tauchain can help with because using Tauchain we can scale discussions, define problems in a precise manner, and most importantly leverage the market. The ability to create markets which are smart (meaning which can adapt to regulatory obstacles) is a potentially unique feature of Tauchain.
Some might say that there are already pharmaceutical companies trying to cure cancer or develop anti-aging treatments. Indeed this is true there are these companies. The problem right now is these companies do not have the new business models which Tauchain might make possible. First is the fact that using an ICO you can let future patients/customers own shares in the company. This allows companies which want to create cures to have the potential to raise billions of dollars necessary to do expensive trials. In addition the ability to do research may improve due to the features of Tauchain as well so that it is cheaper to search for new potential drugs or supplements.
The human genome is very complicated and is an area we know very little about. Cancer is also something we have to study. One example of an approach to defeating cancer is immunotherapy but this again is going to require a lot of research into how to reprogram the immune system to identify and destroy cancer. If everyone can help or contribute in some way to the process then it makes the process much cheaper than it is right now which means the drug or treatment can potentially be cheaper due to lower R&D cost.
Most people want to live long and healthy lives but we still know very little
We know very little about aging. We do have some theories as to what causes aging. We even have some theories on how to slow it down. But we don't understand the mechanism well enough yet to develop a treatment. By aging I'm referring to the process by which cellular function deteriorates over time. We know for example the risk of getting cancer increases with age. But we still are working on the means of developing biomarkers to even determine the age of a person.
What if we could leverage the potential of Tauchain to discover more about the aging process? What if we could develop an anti aging pill or treatment which we could collaboratively develop and own? What if we could make a profit from every pill sold via tokenization? If this sounds good to you then it might sound good to millions of others who could be encouraged to participate in an ICO to develop a pill to slow or supplement the aging process.
The ethical and rational argument
Some people could say that to put an emphasis on saving lives is to seek to do the greatest good for the greatest number. This emphasis could put Tauchain on a fast track to mainstream adoption because utility would be measured in not just how profitable it is to hold a token but in the potential lives that could be saved. To profit from saving lives is an ethical and rational argument. To align the profit motive with saving as many lives as possible is an easy ethical (and rational) argument to make. People who value life will value any technology which saves lives.
Some projects exist which I will list below that already are trying to save lives or end aging. These projects did ICOs over Ethereum and so they currently are Ethereum focused. That being said there is the possibility that some projects could still leverage Tauchain regardless of whether they originally launched on Ethereum. It is also possible that new projects can launch on Tauchain to attempt the same or similar objectives.
What can Tauchain do?
Grunau, G. L., Gueron, S., Pornov, B., & Linn, S. (2018). The Risk of Cancer Might be Lower Than We Think. Alternatives to Lifetime Risk Estimates. Rambam Maimonides medical journal, 9(1).
What is Tauchain & Why It Could Be One of The Greatest Inventions of All Time (Part 1: Introduction). By Kevin Wong. Posted on Steemit. August 28, 2018.
In anticipation of Tau's demo some time around the end of this year, I'd be publishing a series of articles leading up to its release and beyond on Steem. If you would like to get to know what some of us think is going to be one of the greatest inventions of all time, I'd recommend you to check out http://wwwidni.org. It seems like a foundation that we've missed out on building together since the birth of the Internet.
A close resemblance of this project is the Semantic Web although some of us would place Tau as being far more ambitious in scope, oddly in a way that is likely more feasible with its ingenious use of a logic blockchain to power a decentralized social choice platform. I think it's impressive how singular the concept actually is, despite the unavoidable lengthy explanations that come paired with the many first-time features that Tau will provide.
Without further ado, let's explore this world-changing technology that is currently baking in the oven.
What is Tau?
Let's begin by first checking out the opening of IDNI's website at http://idni.org:-
Tau is a decentralized blockchain network intended to solve the bottlenecks inherent in large scale human communication and accelerate productivity in human collaboration using logic based Artificial Intelligence.
Sounds fairly straight-forward at first glance, and to me, it really stands out in the cryptosphere. We now have millions and billions of people using the Internet everyday, yet we still do not have any effective means of discussing and collaborating without being all over the place. Sure, we may have been pouring a lot of our time and effort into various platforms trying to connect with others, but have things been really any different compared to a time before the Internet?
The speed of information propagation has increased by orders of magnitude, and we can reach anyone on the planet now, but it's still really up to us to be present and be able to process information in our heads before turning them into relevant knowledge for our networks.
Expanding our social bandwidth.
Turns out, we have been experiencing a lot of trouble coming to terms with the chatter of billions of people in cyberspace. The bottlenecks inherent in our human bandwidth remain to be unsolved even with near-instantaneous communications. From governments to corporations and blockchain communities, we are all still facing the age-old problem of being unable to scale governance beyond the size of a classroom. It's just difficult to get our points across to many different people, let alone making sense of complex long-term discussions and making network-wide decisions collaboratively.
The introduction to The New Tau written by Ohad Asor explains our situation quite accurately:-
Some of the main problems with collaborative decision making have to do with scales and limits that affect flow and processing of information. Those limits are so believed to be inherent in reality such that they're mostly not considered to possibly be overcomed. For example, we naturally consider the case in which everyone has a right to vote, but what about the case in which everyone has an equal right to propose what to vote over?
So how is Tau actually going to solve our communications bottleneck? It will be through a highly bespoke and non-trivial implementation of a logic-based Artificial Intelligence (AI). It's worth noting that AI in this case is more of a buzzword for marketing-speak, and it is actually not of the same variety as the commercial implementations of deep machine learnig.
The distinction that must be made is that Tau is not the kind of AI that attempts to guess what the world is around them, including that of our opinions and the things we say or do. Instead, we must make the step towards communicating through Tau and what we choose to communicate will be as definite as computer programs. It can be thought of as a persistent logic companion that helps us improve the scale our reasoning, logic, and bandwidth.
We can take the time to share what we want to share on the Tau network and most of the logic-based connections and operations will happen in the background over time, even when we're not paying attention in-person. Again, the use of the word AI is a misnomer here because it usually paints the picture of AI agents attempting to mimic human autonomy. That's not what Tau is about. In this case, thinking about Tau as just a logic machine should provide better clarity on what it actually is.
The power of logic.
To expand, here's the second paragraph found in the opening of IDNI's website that explains Tau's paradigm in logic-based communications, http://idni.org:-
Currently, large scale discussions and collaborative efforts carried out directly between people are highly inefficient. To address this problem, we developed a paradigm which we call Human-Machine-Human communication: the core principle is that the users can not only interact with each other but also make their statements clear to their Tau client. Our paradigm enables Tau to deduce areas of consensus among its users in real time, allowing the network to boost communication by acting as an intermediary between humans. It does so by collecting the opinions and preferences its users wish to share and logically constructing opinions into a semantic knowledge base.
Indeed, Tau will offer a semantic social choice platform where we can discuss and store knowledge in a logical universe that helps us organize information, thereby empowering us in highly relevant ways. If you're worried about privacy, know that Tau is first-and-foremost designed as a local client with local processing and storage. The platform itself will be deployed as a decentralized peer-to-peer network, a place where we can connect and share our knowledge-base with anyone we desire.
The only price to pay in all of these is that we must speak in Tau-comprehensible languages, which can always be added and modified over time. A sophisticated language that can be defined over Tau may closely resemble natural languages, but it is really best to expect Tau as a machine-comprehensible language that only speaks in logic. Fortunately, logical formalism is something that we can easily deal with.
So it will be up to us to communicate with our local Tau client in a way that it'll understand our worldviews. When the machine understands what we share completely in some logical, mathematically-verifiable sense, it can then connect our dots with the rest of the Tau network, effectively boosting communications beyond the limits of human bandwidth, effectively scaling our points of discussion, consensus, and collaboration up to an infinite number of participants.
Code and consciousness.
Finally, we look at the last paragraph of Tau's introduction at http://idni.org
Able to deduce consensus and understand discussions, Tau can automatically generate and execute code on consensus basis, through a process known as code synthesis. This will greatly accelerate knowledge production and expedite most large scale collaborative efforts we can imagine in today's world.
Since Tau is a logic blockchain that powers a semantic social choice platform, we can leverage it to have both small and large-scale discussions about program specifications, detect points of consensus, and even generate software in the process. Being able to go from discussions to the realization of decentralized applications would mean inclusive code development for the masses. It's also a unique addition to decentralization that no other blockchain projects have even thought about.
Now that we may have come to a better understanding of Tau's emphasis on the use of logic in every part of its being, let's revisit the process description found in The New Tau to get closer to knowing what it really is about:-
We are interested in a process in which a small or very large group of people repeatedly reach and follow agreements. We refer to such processes as Social Choice. We identify five aspects arising from them, language, knowledge, discussion, collaboration, and choice about choice. We propose a social choice mechanism by a careful consideration of these aspects.
In short, Tau is a decentralized peer-to-peer network that takes the shape of a social choice platform, and it can become anything that we want it to be, for as long as it's expressible within the self-defining and decidable logics of FO[PFP] with PSPACE-complexity. This precise specification is required to satisfy the very definition of Tau as seen in the excerpt above. Tau is also intended to be a compiler-compiler.
This is taking application-generality into a completely different direction compared to blockchains that are built specifically with turing-completeness in mind, like Ethereum. Relevant literature to check out: Finite Model Theory.
Understanding each other.
While it's all highly technical and difficult to grasp in one seating, perhaps a better way to truly begin to understand Tau is to spend some time studying its main features. Or just wait for the product release. In any case, I will try to explore these topics in the future if my brain can still handle it:-
The more I think about Tau, the more I think that it is (poetically) a logical conclusion to the way the Internet works as a protocol. It even lives and breaths logic. Not just any kind of logic, but specifically, logics that can define their own semantics and is decidable. Tau is intelligently designed to be a truly dynamic and ever-evolving blockchain.
When the Tau community intends to make changes to the network code, rules or protocols, they will simply need to express these opinions and perspectives in a compatible language over the network. The self defining logic of the Tau blockchain network will enable it to detect the consensus among these opinions and automatically amend its own code to reflect this consensus from block to block. Unlike the common method of voting, Tau’s approach will take into account the perspectives of the entire community, where people will be free to vote and propose what to vote for in real time. This unique ability of Tau is the only decentralized solution to create a truly dynamic protocol.
Now you might think: Tau seems like a powerful tool but will it be too difficult to use for most people? There might be some learning curve involved for sure, and it'd be similar to learning a new language in the beginning. Those of us who learn to use it well enough to scale our discussions and collaborative works will likely gain a significant edge over those who are not using the platform. I'd imagine plenty of projects and communities around the world being able to overcome some of their obstacles in development through Tau. Hence, it may be fair to expect that market forces will gravitate towards the platform just like how we're all using the Internet these days.
Until the next post.
I've been thinking about Tau almost everyday for the past many months now, and I will admit that its deeper technicalities are still way out of my league, although I've made sure to word them broadly out the best I can. If you like what I do, please consider sharing this post and voting on my witness account on Steem. For more info, check out my recent witness announcement post.
As always, thanks for reading!
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Tauchain and the privacy question (benefits of secret contracts and private knowledge). By Dana Edwards. Posted on Steemit. August 21, 2018.
As we can see from the current trend in crypto there is now a move toward privacy. Most people underestimate in my opinion the utility of these cryptographic advances. In this blogpost I will highlight a particular advance enabled by these new cryptographic (and hardware techniques such as trusted execution environment) which can be of massive benefit to the long term believers in Tauchain.
The problem: Anyone can copy the code Ohad writes if it's open source
So we have a problem with Tauchain where all of the code Ohad is writing with regard to TML is open source and on Github. This allows a competitor to simply steal his best ideas and in a sense rob the token holders who actually funded the development of the code. This happens very often as we see a new innovation in the crypto space and soon later we see a new ICO or a new group come out of no where acting as if they originated the technology. In some cases the new group may even be much more centralized, more secretive, and very well funded.
The solution: Secret contracts (private source code and execution)
The trusted execution environment allows for the protection of intellectual property rights on the hardware level. While sMPC (secure multiparty computation) can also achieve similar ends on the software level. The idea being that this provides a solution to idea theft where a community can keep certain critical pieces of code, data, algorithms, or other unique features secret. This creates an entirely new way to monetize knowledge, code, and ideas, which Agoras will be uniquely positioned to leverage.
Guy Zyskind of the Enigma Project provides the definition for what secret contracts are and how they work. The Enigma Project deserves credit for introducing this technology and for identifying a major problem in the cryptospace. Traditionally on Ethereum or all other current platforms when you release a DApp your code has to be open source. It is not possible to create a closed or private source decentralized app. In addition the app has to be executed in the open so all data running through it is public.
Strategic implementation of private knowledge and source code can allow Tauchain to maintain a dominant position
In most cases the world benefits if knowledge is shared. In fact I'm in favor most of the time of sharing as much knowledge as is safe. The problem with algorithms, source code, and certain kinds of knowledge is that by sharing that knowledge it provides a competitive advantage to people who have more financial resources. These individuals can simply see Github and copy. They can hire programmers to compete with Tauchain and Agoras developers and as long as the code is open there will be no real reason to buy the Agoras token long term.
What if the Tauchain development team and Agoras developers decide to implement private knowledge bases? What if it becomes possible to run code in a trusted execution environment so that other developers around the world cannot see the code or the algorithms? This would allow Tauchain to build Agoras in such a way that no other project will be capable of duplicating it. This would lock in the value backed by the community brainpower into the Agoras token making it a true knowledge token which cannot simply by copied with ease by another project.
In fact this is a strategy that developers making apps using Enigma's Secret Contracts are looking into as we speak. This competitive advantage of secrecy will change the landscape of the cryptospace. What does this enable for Agoras? Imagine an encrypted Github which developers can contribute to but only the developers can see the code? Imagine after the code is written that no one else can see the code if the code is set to run privately? This would allow developers to code in secret and have the code run on computers without anyone knowing what the code is.
This can open up security vulnerabilities but Tauchain can defend against these. In particular it matters what is private and what is public. Critical aspects can be private while security critical areas can always be kept public. There may even be ways to prove that the code doesn't behave in a certain way without actually sharing the code (using advanced cryptography). In fact my favored way of implementing this feature would be to timelock the release of the source code by a number of months of years.
The idea isn't to keep things closed forever or secret forever. Privacy is about access control and about keeping things secret long enough to maintain a competitive advantage. A time delay to unlock the source code for example could work. It is even possible to allow the community to use puzzle based time lock encryption to have to mine to get the source code released early (if there is a serious need or threat). In this way all secret blocks of code could be unlockable but not for free and this would make it less likely that the community will seek to unlock it unless there is a genuine reason (beyond just to steal ideas).
What do you think about these ideas? If you agree with this or disagree then comment below. Strategic IP (intellectual property) is used by major corporations to give themselves a competitive advantage. The crypto community can do the same thing in ways the legal mechanisms can't do. In fact it can be done in a more fair and better way because often the people or companies awarded IP rights aren't the actual inventors. A knowledge economy is fantastic but if the knowledge is just harvested by big corporations monitoring the wide open network then it's going to be hard to bring value to a knowledge token.
UPDATE: Many people ask where to buy Agoras. The problem is it's not widely available on centralized exchanges. The only exchange I know that has it is Bitshares. So if anyone really wants to buy Agoras (AGRS) which is the token of discussion in this post feel free to buy it at:
42 million intermediate tokens total. Current price is: 0.00010700 BTC which is around 70 cents. This is the cheapest price I've seen it in a while because for a long time it was $1.50-$1.30 range. This is a very speculative token at this time so buy at your own risk as I'm not providing any financial advice. I'm a holder of this token of course and have been for years.
Puddu, I., Dmitrienko, A., & Capkun, S. (2017). μchain: How to Forget without Hard Forks. IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive, 2017, 106.
Kaptchuk, G., Miers, I., & Green, M. (2017). Managing Secrets with Consensus Networks: Fairness, Ransomware and Access Control. IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive, 2017, 201.
Tauchain 101: Essential Reading On One Of The Most Revolutionary Blockchain Project Under The Radar...By Rok Sivante. Published on Steemit. August 3, 2018.
Amidst countless blockchain projects hyping themselves up as "the next big thing," there are a few that have been working under the radar that hold the promise - not in word, but in substance - of truly being revolutionary game-changers.
Such ventures have not yet often come into the spotlight. Partly, due to that their founders have focused first on the fundamentals of creating something that speaks for itself versus the all-too-common approach of prioritizing sensationalistic marketing. And partly, because the degree of innovativeness they represent - in tandem with a complexity in scope of the larger visions and implications of their success - does not always lend itself to an easy understanding upfront.
One such project - still very early on in its development, yet holding transformative potentials no less grand than those of Bitcoin and Ethereum as they birthed and evolved the blockchain landscape:
Until recently, with the launch of a new website that has successfully managed to articulate the project's vision much more clearly, understanding what Tauchain is striving to accomplish was a domain only a very few, highly-intelligent technically-inclined dared to tread. And prior to December 2018, there was no code - only an unproven concept spearheaded by a single Israeli developer, Ohad Asor, whom nearly all who've managed to connect with have declared to be one of the most brilliant geniuses they've ever met, possibly ahead of his time.
Just as Bitcoin introduced blockchain as an innovation radically altering the trajectory of our societal, economic, and technological evolution - and Ethereum continued in suit with its upgrades to expand in developing upon the vision with entirely new sets of capabilities for developing a range of decentralized applications and smart contracts - so too, may Tauchain be such a platform whose success proves comparable, the impact of which may bring quantum leaps in the Blockchain Revolution.
How and where to start in describing Tauchain...?
Well, were we to begin with the technical side of things, it'd be likely to lose 98% of the audience. So perhaps, a better starting point might be the bigger picture:
This generalized overview, however, still only barely scratches the surface.
While the intended ends may be that of a generic concept enabling drastically-increased efficiency in global collaboration, the means by which such is to be achieved entails a number of innovative component developments that each hold great significance and implications of their own.
While each may require deeper exploration to better grasp and begin piecing together into the bigger picture, the Tauchain website now offers an overview of key features which account for just some of what it to differentiate it from other blockchain platforms - and enable new collaborative capabilities not currently possible with currently existing technologies:
While it'd be possible to expand upon each in great detail - both in regards to the functionality and implications for their applications - this particular piece of writing is to serve as a basic introduction to some of the best, most-easily-accessible content written on Tauchain to-date.
And as we transition into that content, we shall begin with a quote summarizing the core essence of Tauchain, as approached from but one angle:
This project created by Ohad Asor is really ambitious and aims to create the internet of knowledge.
Some people would label it as an Artificial Intelligence, but according to the creator this is something totally different. Summing up and to understand me, Tau-chain is a tool that knows how to interpret any information and deduce any consensus. This tool can be used in any field, judicial, political, academic, social, scientific and also without limits assembly from 2 people to a million for example.
~ @capitanart, from "My experience with Tau-chain"
The collection begins with two selections from Steemit's @trafalgar.
If anyone has successfully managed to distill the essence of the Tauchain vision into words that'd serve as a foundational Tauchain 101 intro, it'd have been him in these two excellent pieces:
What Is Tau? - My Only Other Crypto Investment
The Power of Tau - Scaling the Creation of Knowledge
Next, come three short articles from @flis, which may not go into any new details beyond the three above, yet offer a slightly different yet simplified perspective to reinforce the clarification of Tauchain's key concepts:
The vision of Tau-Chain, a blockchain based self-amending platform designed to scale human collaboration and knowledge building
How Tau-Chain can be implemented in practice
Tau Chain vs. Tezos - which platform will provide a better solution?
~ design credit: @voronoi
Next, come a few selections from @dana-edwards, who has likely been the single individual who has translated the highly-complex technical vision of Ohad Asor into a more-approachable nature from which non-academics may begin and better understanding a Tauchain.
Quite possibly the first to write of developments and share outside of the project’s IRC channel and Bitcoin talk thread, Dana has one of the most comprehensive grasps publicized anywhere on the project, and his writings continue to serve in establishing bridges for more people to discover and deepen their own comprehensions of the innovations Tauchain represents to not only computer science and the blockchain revolution, but cultural & societal evolution as well.
What follows are a collection of his writings related to the project which excellently piece together key ideas and insights, from which the gaps may be filled in to grasp a firmer idea of just how significant these developments could be and what the bigger picture of their success might look like:
What Tauchain can do for us: Collaborative Serious Alternate Reality Games
What Tauchain can do for us: Finding the world's biggest problems
Tauchain: The automated programmer
Artificial morality: Moral agents and Tauchain
What Tauchain can do for us: Effective Altruism + Tauchain
Collaborative Alternate Reality Games + Tauchain = UBAs (Universal Basic Assets)?
Tauchain and Tezos, why adaptability is the key to surviving in a fast changing environment
My commentary on Ohad's latest blog post: "Agoras to TML"
The following three pieces are not introductory-level, and may likely require a background in computer programming to understanding. However, for anyone reading who might be interested in diving deeper into the technical side of the project, they are included here:
Tauchain is not easy to understand but here are some concepts to know to track Ohad's progress
For all who are researching Tauchain (TML) to understand how it works, a nice video!
More on partial evaluation - How does partial evaluation work and why is it important?
~ design credit: @crypticalias
One other writer covering Tauchain needing to be mentioned: @karov.
While not the easiest to read and understand, the Steemit account of Georgi Karov is undoubtedly one of the most consistent sources of coverage on the project.
A lawyer by-trade and currently one of the three members of the core team, @karov's insights into the project are reliably detailed, expansive into philosophical territory, and fascinating.
Although none of his articles have been included in this introductory collection, those who may be interested to keep up-to-date with coverage on the project would be well-advised to follow his Steemit blog - and/or read backwards through the last few months of his posts there, as the blog is nearly-entirely Tauchain-related content.
Lastly, though not least:
Coming from one of Steemit's most brilliant early-adopter-minds, @kevinwong, this one is a quick read in itself with some key points worth factoring in to a proper assessment of the project. And - far lengthier than the post itself - the comments thread also contains some gold:
Is Tauchain Agoras in Good Hands?
And to wrap up with another excellent quotes from design consultant to the project, @capitanart - who is another to follow for updates:
The goal of Tau is to create a supermind, to solve the limitations inherent in human communication on a large scale.
Able to deduce consensus and understand discussions, Tau can generate and execute code automatically based on consensus, through a process known as code synthesis. This will greatly accelerate the production of knowledge and streamline most of the large-scale collaborative efforts we can imagine in today's world.
~ design credit: @overdye
Una deliberación y descripción de cómo Tauchain trabaja escrito por un no experto. Por Dana Edwards. Post traducido por Tokuyama y publicado en Steemit - hace un año.
Una deliberación y descripción de cómo Tauchain trabaja escrito por un no experto.
En primer lugar, voy a decir que no me considero un experto en el tema de Tauchain, o en el tema de la programación funcional. Mi experiencia se basa en la seguridad de la información y la filosofía (ética). Mis conocimientos teóricos sobre estos temas provienen de mi formación académica, años de investigación personal y discusiones con el desarrollador de Tauchain Ohad Asor. Para una descripción más precisa más allá de lo que ofrezco remítase por favor a Ohad Asor.
¿Qué es Tauchain?
Muchos programadores experimentados, licenciados en ciencias de la computación, expertos en criptografía, tienen dificultades en entender exactamente lo que es Tauchain y por qué es tan importante. El propósito de lo que estoy haciendo aquí es ayudar a desmitificar y elucidar la forma en que Tauchain está actualmente planeado para funcionar. Estaré deliberando temas como la lógica y sus implicaciones para la seguridad de la información en el software. Estaré deliberando cómo se prueba el software y por qué el lenguaje imperativo completo de Turing representa un riesgo para todos los contratos inteligentes que intentan ser confiables. Voy a hablar de Notación3 con algunos ejemplos sobre cómo la programación en Tau puede funcionar y mucho más.
El diseño es algo importante y Tauchain está bien diseñado
Una de las razones por las que me interesé en Tauchain es que me di cuenta de que los desarrolladores detrás de él estaban dispuestos a crear algo que podríamos llamar arte. Yo mismo leo muchas revistas académicas y reconozco cuando los desarrolladores están haciendo investigaciones serias. En mi primera comunicación con Ohad me preguntó acerca de la Teoría tipo Martin Lof y de la cual hasta ese momento nunca había oído hablar. No sabía quién era Martin Lof o por qué era importante, pero como investigador diligente seguí todo lo que Ohad dijo y llegué a la conclusión de que Martin Lof es uno de los lógicos más importantes de nuestro tiempo. La Teoría tipo Martin Lof es extremadamente importante y me di cuenta de que Teoría tipo Martin Lof y estaba ligeramente relacionada con algo que tropezó en mi propia investigación llamada lógica intuicionista. La lógica intuicionista introduce el concepto de la prueba constructivista que en términos básicos significa que demuestras por ejemplo (prueba demostrativa) más que por la representación simbólica sola.
Una breve explicación de la lógica proposicional para explicar el poder de los contratos inteligentes decidibles.
Para entender lo que Tauchain puede hacer es posible que necesite entender los fundamentos básicos de la lógica. Si usted es un filósofo puede estar familiarizado con la lógica, pero para aquellos que no tienen antecedentes filosóficos daré una explicación sencilla sobre lógica proposicional.
Los fundamentos básicos de la lógica proposicional requieren una comprensión de las conexiones lógicas. Los programadores de ordenadores tienen un concepto similar llamado operadores lógicos como el “si”, “y”, “o” con lo que es más fácil de entender.
• Conjunción significa “y”.
• Disyunción significa “o”.
• Negación significa “no”.
• Implicación significa “si … entonces”.
• Equivalencia significa “si y sólo si”.
• Negación alternativa significa “no ambos”
T =Verdadero, F = Falso
Además de estas descripciones en español, también hay símbolos. Los símbolos principales utilizados en una tabla de verdad de lógica proposicional son P y Q. Voy a dar un breve ejemplo de cómo se usa.
En una tabla de verdad hay 4 operaciones unitarias.
Operación nularia negativa
En la tabla de la verdad.
Un argumento lógico requiere una premisa y una conclusión. Una tabla de verdad tiene T o F donde cada sentencia en la tabla debe ser verdadera o falsa (T o F).
Para cada declaración distinta utilizamos la letra P o Q.
P: Barack Obama nació en los Estados Unidos.
P: Barack Obama es el Presidente de los Estados Unidos en 2016.
P y Q: T (es cierto que Barack Obama es Presidente de los Estados Unidos en 2016) + (es cierto que Barack Obama nació en Estados Unidos).
Barack Obama es el Presidente de los Estados Unidos en 2016 sólo si Barack Obama nació en los Estados Unidos.
Solo si Barack Obama nació en los Estados Unidos puede Barack Obama ser Presidente de los Estados Unidos en 2016.
Etiquetar la primera sentencia P como A.
Etiquetar la segunda sentencia Q como B.
B ==> A
La segunda afirmación que es verdad implica que la primera declaración debe ser verdadera. De hecho, la segunda afirmación sólo puede ser verdadera si la primera afirmación es verdadera.
De este modo si tenemos una tabla de verdad se pueden tomar hechos basados en lo que se sabe que es verdadero o falso, y siguiendo las reglas de la lógica derivan en una conclusión de T o F. Debido a que siempre se puede derivar una conclusión de T o F a cualquier Declaración que mantenga la coherencia lógica. Es esta consistencia lógica la que permite un cómputo decidible, pero con el fin de conseguir que se pierda la integridad. Es por esta razón que el Turing completo es indeseable si desea confiar en la seguridad basada en el nivel de lenguaje basado en lógica. La seguridad del nivel de lenguaje basado en lógica toma la forma de carga del programador al tener que preocuparse de que la programación sea segura o realizar una programación defensiva porque el propio lenguaje es defensivo y la seguridad se obtiene por coherencia lógica. Simplemente no es posible que haya una contradicción lógica, así que si volvemos al ejemplo de Obama simplemente no es posible que P sea falso y Q sea verdad, pero B implica A. Barack Obama es el Presidente de los Estados Unidos solamente Si Barack Obama nació en los Estados Unidos de lo contrario tendrás una contradicción lógica que hace que todo careza de sentido.
El Turing completo permite este tipo de contradicciones. En lugar de sí o no, verdadero o falso, se obtiene sí y no, verdadero y falso, que son salidas sin sentido. Esto hace que el cálculo no termine nunca. Sigue en el infinito porque el Turing completo va con la idea de que hay infinita memoria y tiempo infinito. Todo el conocimiento actual del universo revela exactamente lo contrario y muestra que tienes una energía finita que no puede ser creada o destruida. Esto también implica que la información no puede ser creada o destruida incluyendo la información que cae en un agujero negro y escapa en forma de radiación. La teoría incompleta de Gódel demuestra que el universo no permite tanto la integridad como la consistencia que revela algo acerca de la naturaleza del universo, así como los límites de lo que es computable.
La importancia del isomorfismo de Curry Howard revela que los programas son pruebas
Y si los programas son pruebas entonces los contratos inteligentes son pruebas porque los contratos inteligentes son programas. Las pruebas lógicas son el núcleo de todos los programas y los programas decidibles son pruebas lógicamente consistentes. Esto es algo para recordar para entender por qué Tauchain se basa en reglas y cómo funciona. También explica algo fundamental sobre cómo Tauchain puede ser capaz de crear reglas, conocimientos, pruebas, porque las reglas se basan enteramente en la lógica, el conocimiento es lo que se demuestra en verdad, las pruebas son posiblemente demostrativas (pruebas constructivistas). Cuando compaginas todo esto, tienes la trilogía en el libro blanco de Ohad donde la lógica permite la derivación correcta de la prueba de sus axiomas / hipótesis / premisa.
Paradigma de la computación/programación blanda (soft coding / Soft computing):
Computación blanda (Soft computing):
Al mirar los contratos inteligentes o software en general, tenemos dos paradigmas diferentes. La computación blanda es un paradigma en el que se consideran aceptables las aproximaciones, imprecisiones y soluciones inexactas a tareas computacionalmente duras. Un ejemplo de soft computing es usar un algoritmo genético para evolucionar una solución o si queremos ver Maidsafe / SAFE Network para ver que está usando una solución de computación blanda donde no tienes una estructura de datos blockchain en absoluto y en su lugar tienes un Algoritmo tipo colonia de hormigas modificado. La cadena de bloques de Bitcoin también es parte del paradigma de computación blanda porque no hay una solución óptima posible para el problema de los generales Bizantinos (Byzantine generals). Esto se debe a que el teorema CAP muestra que es lógicamente imposible tener más de dos fuera mediante la consistencia, disponibilidad y tolerancia de la partición. En la fase de investigación ayuda a entender lo que es imposible antes de comenzar el desarrollo. Satoshi Nakamoto se basa en la minería NP dura, y el consenso distribuido eso es un problema que ningún algoritmo puede resolver eficientemente. Maidsafe y Satoshi Nakamoto se basan en el enfoque de la informática blanda para resolver el problema porque no existe un algoritmo que pueda dar una solución precisa.
Codificación blanda (Softcoding):
La codificación blanda es un patrón de diseño mucho más seguro y más inteligente. Cualquier valor comúnmente alterado debe ser codificado con software. La codificación blanda promueve la libertad y la personalización. El software que es codificado de este modo es más fácil de realizar los deseos del usuario. Tau lleva esto al extremo donde la red Tauchain es completamente autodefinida. Es auto-poético en el sentido de que una vez que esté completamente configurado y particularmente funcionando con Agoras será autorganizado y también autónomo en el mantenimiento. Tauchain será lo que los primeros usuarios quieren que sea. Tauchain es lo más flexible posible, lo cual es bueno para la libertad.
Paradigma de la Computación/programación dura (hard computing / hard coding)
Computación dura (Hardcomputing):
Por otro lado, la computación dura puede contribuir a la sobre-ingeniería porque algunos problemas no pueden resolverse a través de la computación dura, porque ninguna solución eficiente puede existir. El análisis de decisiones, la agregación de preferencias y la toma de decisiones son problemas difíciles de NP en el sentido de que no se puede confiar en el algoritmo perfecto o que sea exacta cualquier tipo de computación dura. En esencia, sólo se pueden resolver este tipo de problemas con soft computing, lo que significa que pueden utilizar blockchains, inteligencia de enjambre, votar, todo lo que es el soft computing. Tau específicamente evitó esto pasando a la estructura de datos de la cadena de bloques (tauchain) y mediante la autodefinición de sus reglas.
Códificación dura (Hardcoding):
La codificación dura es un antipatrón común. La codificación dura permite y contribuye a que el programador cometa muchos errores. Tauchain comienza sin ninguna regla en absoluto en el contexto de la raíz que significa que no es hardcoded en absoluto. Los primeros usuarios tendrán lo que parece ser una flexibilidad ilimitada para definir Tauchain. Esto significa que Tauchain potencialmente puede mantener siempre la alineación con el interés propio de la comunidad que establece sus reglas y en los casos en los que la comunidad puede estar en desacuerdo no hay bifurcaciones. En lugar de hacer un fork sería muy simple, crear simplemente un nuevo contexto y un nuevo derivado del cual todo el mundo obtiene lo que quiere mediante la separación del contexto. El problema de Bitcoin o de Ethereum decidiendo fork o no fork se haría irrelevante en Tauchain.
Una breve introducción al lenguaje de programación Notation3
Notation 3 se basa en el concepto de sujeto -> predicado -> objeto. Es único en su simplicidad pero es lo suficientemente poderoso para describir cualquier cosa. La Notation 3 permite al programador convertirse en un ingeniero de ontología y describir por sujeto -> predicado -> objeto, es mejor si lo describo como un gráfico lógico.
Cómo es en Tau
Comencemos con una oración en español: Alicia conoce a Bob.
El sujeto es Alicia.
El predicado es conoce.
El objeto es Bob.
En este caso, el predicado describe lo que Alicia hace o es. Sabe que es algo que Alicia puede hacer porque es un ser humano y un humano tiene esa capacidad. Bob es un humano también y puede conocer a Alicia. Esto revela que hay una lógica en el fondo que discutiremos más adelante pero primero echemos una ojeada al código.
Ejemplo en Notation3 codigo siguiente:
@prefix ppl: <http://ejemplo.org/gente#>.
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/>.
ppl:Alicia foaf:conoce ppl:Bob
El código anterior utiliza el @prefix de manera similar a cómo C o C++ usa encabezados o Python utiliza la importación. Se denomina declaración de espacio de nombres y, aunque no es necesario, puede facilitar la escritura en Notation3. Notation3 también tiene vocabularios y reglas.
Ejemplo de una regla a continuación:
@prefix ppl: <http://ejemplo.org/gente#>.
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/>.
ppl:Alicia foaf:conoce ppl:Bob.
ppl:Bob foaf:conoce ppl:Alicia.
¿Recuerdan la lógica proposicional? La lógica es la base de las reglas en la Notation3.
El "=>" significa implica. Si esto entonces esto. Expresado sucintamente, afirma que sí Alicia conoce a Bob entonces Bob conoce a Alicia.
Para decirlo de otra manera, que Alicia conozca a Bob implica que Bob conozca a Alicia. Esto se convierte en una regla y una vez que la conviertes en una regla en Notation3, puedes razonar basándote en ese conocimiento de reglas. Tau tendrá un razonador que puede aplicar el razonamiento deductivo automáticamente para deducir hechos adicionales al gráfico del conocimiento. Por ejemplo, si Tau sabe lo que es un ser humano y sabe que todas las personas son humanas y todos los seres humanos son mamíferos, entonces puede darse cuenta de que Alicia y Bob son mamíferos si son humanos usando el razonamiento deductivo. Esto es muy potente para los programadores si se usa adecuadamente.
Como se puede ver los conceptos básicos de Notation3 no son difíciles y si bien es una comprensión básica de la lógica puede que no sea muy diferente de la lógica que la gente espera obtener con condicionales en los lenguajes de programación tradicionales. Lo que es diferente es que nosotros tenemos un razonamiento automatizado. Nosotros describimos cómo debe funcionar un programa en lugar de decirlo a través de comandos paso a paso. A medida que Tau crezca, su base de conocimientos crecerá y podrá consultar a Tau para recopilar fragmentos de código. Seremos capaces de saber exactamente lo que va a hacer y la programación se hará más fácil con el tiempo.
Cuando tratamos con un software que no es decidible hay maneras de tratar de hacer algo confiable. Todos los métodos conocidos comúnmente se basan en pruebas de caja negra. Se llama prueba de caja de bloqueo porque primero tenemos que reconocer que no podemos saber con certeza lo que pasa en la caja negra. Sólo podemos trabajar para tener cuidado con nuestra entrada y analizar la salida.
Cuando se trata de una caja negra, se trata de una lógica indecidible. Cuando se trata de una caja negra se trata de una situación en la que es posible que pueda experimentar comportamientos inesperados que pueden dar lugar a consecuencias no deseadas para los participantes en el contrato inteligente. Con el fin de crear un contrato inteligente seguro utilizando un lenguaje completo de Turing se tiene que ser extremadamente cuidadoso para defenderse contra las entradas elaboradas mientras que al mismo tiempo se tiene que analizar las salidas. Puede tomar muchos años de pruebas antes de obtener un software que funcione como usted piensa que debe funcionar a menos que pueda averiguar lo que pasa en la caja negra.
¿Por qué pueden ser imposibles los contratos inteligentes confiables en Ethereum y una elección entre la fiabilidad y la inmutabilidad puede ser inevitable?
Actualmente, los contratos inteligentes de Ethereum no son fiables. Muchos investigadores en seguridad y personas altamente competentes dicen que a un nivel fundamental estos contratos inteligentes nunca serán confiables. En mi opinión, si bien es posible crear contratos inteligentes confiables, no es posible hacerlo de forma coherente con las herramientas actuales y se necesitaría una reelaboración completa de Ethereum para abordar esta situación mediante la puesta en práctica de una verificación formal mínima obligatoria que aun así todavía podría no garantizar la producción de contratos inteligentes perfectamente confiables, pero sería mejor que ahora.
El problema con Ethereum se deriva del hecho de que requiere que los contratos inteligentes sean confiables para ser valioso del todo. Es una plataforma valiosa basada en el hecho de que ofrece lo que la gente espera que sean los contratos inteligentes confiables. Es valioso basado en el hecho de que la gente espera que porque Ethereum es descentralizado que será más confiable y más seguro que centralizado. El hack DAO expone el hecho de que los contratos inteligentes no son confiables y tal vez en realidad no es más seguro que la web centralizada.
La inmutabilidad es una característica deseada porque la gente quiere saber que los contratos inteligentes potencialmente vivirán para siempre. Tengo que decir que la inmutabilidad es un ideal similar que no funcionará en la práctica al igual que el Turing completo requiere que no tenga consistencia, el hecho es que con Ethereum puede ser deseable tener inmutabilidad pero la inmutabilidad sin confiabilidad es inútil.
Si hay contratos inteligentes que son a su vez poco fiables e inmutables, entonces se obtendrá lo peor de dicha combinación. Tienes la inseguridad y también obtienes algo peligroso que sería un contrato inteligente que no puede ser cerrado incluso cuando la mayoría del planeta piensa que debería serlo. Por esta razón, Ethereum probablemente tendrá que sacrificar la inmutabilidad para una fiabilidad satisfactoria. La fiabilidad satisfactoria significa que si hay un error en un contrato inteligente, entonces puede haber un proceso de hard fork y restaurar los fondos o si hay una confiscación injusta que se pueda deshacer y restaurar.
Tauchain es hasta ahora la única plataforma que garantiza contratos inteligentes confiables
Tauchain puede garantizar la fiabilidad de los contratos inteligentes debido a los métodos formales utilizados, el lenguaje de programación totalmente funcional dependiendo del lenguaje de programación escrito, los Agoras que podrán comprar computación, almacenamiento e incluso código en sí, a partir de un mercado inteligente. Si va a haber un contrato inteligente de mil millones de dólares es probable que nunca vaya a estar en Ethereum y más que probable que estará en Tauchain o en un sucesor.
Esto no significa que nada pueda salir mal con Tauchain. Va a ser un desafío extremo incluso para crear Tauchain y Tau el lenguaje de programación puede tomar años antes de que la gente pueda entender el valor. Por último, no menos importante es posible que la gente lo vea como una moda en lugar de que es confiable y en este caso, podemos tener un futuro donde la gente almacena miles de millones de dólares en contratos inteligentes con errores de los que se aprovecharan ida y vuelta los hackers, la esperanza es Tauchain que ofrece la alternativa para las personas que se preocupan por los contratos inteligentes de misión crítica y experimentos serios que requieren una garantía de fiabilidad.
Post traducido por tokuyama. Post original de Dana Edwards en Inglés con permiso del autor para su traducción al español: A discussion and description of how Tauchain works by a non-expert.
Fuente / Source: Post traducido por tokuyama. Post original de Dana Edwards en Inglés con permiso del autor para su traducción al español: A discussion and description of how Tauchain works by a non-expert.
Logo by CapitanArt
Enlaces / Links
Logo by CapitanArt
Archivos / Archives
Suggested readings to better understand the Tau ecosystem, Tau Meta Language, Tau-Chain and Agoras, and collaborate in the development of the project.
Lecturas sugeridas para entender mejor el ecosistema Tau, Tau Meta Lenguaje, Tau-Chain y Agoras, y colaborar en el desarrollo del proyecto.