The Era of Signals and Changing Power Dynamics. By Dana Edwards. Posted on Steemit. October 8, 2018.
The world we live in is rapidly changing. For instance the #MeToo era has arrived. This new era shows us that any individual in any position in society can be brought down. It proves a point that many in the blockchain community may have known instinctively which is that any individual source of authority and or power can and may be removed from that position. Some people actively choose to seek to be in these positions of power for their own reasons and then some of these people abuse their positions of power. People who seek power for the wrong reasons and then abuse it are in my opinion a risk which positions of authority bring (which blockchain technology may help reduce).
What are signals and what is signalling theory?
Social desirability bias is a popular topic in academic circles. To explain:
In social science research, social desirability bias is a type of response bias that is the tendency of survey respondents to answer questions in a manner that will be viewed favorably by others. It can take the form of over-reporting "good behavior" or under-reporting "bad," or undesirable behavior. The tendency poses a serious problem with conducting research with self-reports, especially questionnaires. This bias interferes with the interpretation of average tendencies as well as individual differences.
People tend to want to be liked/loved. People when asked questions on a survey may feel pressured to answer the survey in a way which they think they will be viewed more favorably by others. In other words rather than answering in a manner which they truly think or feel they will assess how others might judge their response and then answer in a way which they think they will be judged more favorably.
A full video on this topic is below:
Social desirability bias is exactly why voting on platforms such as Steem will not work. When voting is public then most of the research seems to show that people will feel pressured to answer the question not in the way which they really believe or prefer but in the way which they think the whales want them to vote or prefer. In other words because on Steem the whales can reward (or punish) anyone who votes in ways which go against "political sensibilities" it is likely that social desirability bias applies particularly on DPOS style consensus platforms. If there are votes and the votes are not encrypted (secret) then we have no way to determine which votes are legitimate and which votes are the result of signalling (such as virtue signals).
For example when it was Trump vs Hillary the polls suggested Hillary would win. This is because there likely was social desirability bias which made it socially undesirable for anyone to admit they voted for Trump. As a result people who voted for Trump or who planned to vote for Trump may have said in public that they intended to vote for Hillary. Because the votes in the election are secret the people who may have seemed like loud Hillary supporters could have been secret Trump supporters in disguise.
In some of my previous posts I discuss signalling theory a bit more:
In these posts I have identified that behavior of individuals is shaped by how individuals think other individuals will think of their behaviors. This would apply to social desirability optimization which I'll label as adopting behaviors which provide the expected payoff of being rewarded with improved social desirability.
To provide clarity the definition of social desirability:
Social desirability is the tendency for research participants to attempt to act in ways that make them seem desirable to other people.
In other words people want to be liked. Likeability is a word I can use to simplify the concept of social desirability for readers. In the example with the 2016 election it is clear that supporters of Trump would risk a social stigma with severe social consequences if they came out in public support. This high cost of public support is why some believed that there were secret Trump supporters who were simply afraid of "losing face". In the most simple terms a person can talk red or talk blue depending on where the social stigma is.
One of the stunning conclusions I reached in my own research on this topic is that the increasing transparency leads to "preference falsification". That is a person who is talking blue while thinking red. If all speech is public (like it is on Steem) then there is the possibility that preference falsification is taking place.
Here is a video on the topic of preference falsification:
Why is this a major problem in the blockchain community? The evolutionary trajectory of a platform relies entirely on market preferences. If censorship exists and conformist pressures hinder true preference aggregation then the developers (and the community itself) will have no way of knowing which improvements to make or which changes would best satisfy the community.
What is leadership and what is the era of signals?
Before I attempt to discuss leadership I will first explain what I think leadership means and what it is. In my opinion the community must always come first. A person who is put into a leadership position is in my opinion in what I'll term "the seat of responsibility". This is in my opinion not an enviable position to be in but someone has to be in this position. For example a person who receives a security clearance is now in a position of heavy responsibility. The information which they protect is not their secrets but the nations secrets.
Leadership in my understanding is not about "being in power" but is about serving a community. To be in a "big seat" is to be in a position of responsibility to make decisions on behalf of a community which the chosen person must represent. In other words being in positions of responsibility is entirely about service and not about power. A representative in congress is not in a position of power but in a position to serve their constituents who put them in that position to represent their interests.
In my opinion to be a good leader is to be a great listener. The leader must listen to the community to find out what the community wants and or needs. The leader must listen to the community to determine what the community thinks is right or wrong. The leader then must offer solutions or proposals or policies which satisfies the requirements of the community. What matters more than who is in the seat is the seat itself. This means the Presidency itself matters more than who is in office. The positions themselves matter more than who is in them. Long after whomever is in these positions are gone there will be these positions to be filled. Any leader in any position is replaceable by someone else if they show failure to lead (whether it be a CEO, or a President of a country, or a lead developer, or any other kind of community leader).
In my understanding it is like chess where all pieces on the board can be in various positions. We know in chess that the pawn can become any piece on the board. The point with this analogy is that individuals in my opinion are not likely to remain the source of power in society. The source of power in society is increasingly becoming the community for better or for worse. According to me, to lead is to serve and to lead effectively is to serve effectively.
To accept a responsibility to serve (to lead) it is required to seek feedback from all whom the community servant represents. This does not require voting specifically but it does require under any circumstance a mechanism by which the community can give brutally honest feedback to the system itself. When I say the system itself I do not mean the feedback must go direction to those who serve the system but that the system must have a means of collecting data, analyzing data, and then informing those who can improve the system on which changes best would satisfy the needs of the community.
In my opinion this is a very data driven process. I do not think leaders can for example process big data using their brain power. This will require that they harness the power of machines (machine intelligence). There is also risk if all the processing is done by one company (such as Google) just as there is risk if all people rely on Facebook for the news and opinions. We can see that Facebook has the ability right or wrong to shape elections by deforming the news feed or by allowing certain fake profiles to interact on the site. We see that Facebook can ban crypto ads at will for example to enforce certain policies without taking any kind of poll from the community or the users for instance. We simply do not see any poll data from the users which indicated that the users were tired of seeing crypto ads.
Summary of thoughts on leadership:
Augmenting the wisdom of the community as a means of better governance
In a world where the community must decide what to do we have a situation where responsibility is increasingly diffuse. This means while it is true that the signature may come from the face of the community (if it is a human face) it is still the community which has to be capable of wisdom. The problem is most communities in the world do not become wiser as more join the community. A bigger community doesn't produce better policies by merely voting together. The problem is while most people have opinions it does not mean opinions are well informed or scientific or wise. The lack of wisdom in a community results in horrible (harmful) policies, over reactions, systemic bias, and more.
The conclusion I have reached so far is that in order to have better governance in an era where the community is the government it is a requirement that the community be wise. It's not enough to simply give the community unlimited power to shape the future without providing any capacity for the community to be wise or to do research or to solve problems. Voting in the sense we see in elections does not involve informed voters. Information supplied to voters is almost always sub par and voters are expected to trust "opinion leaders" and "opinion shapers" who tell them how to vote and why. Often disinformation shapes elections more than scientific evidence, facts, math, or reason.
As we build blockchain technology I think it is critical that we put great emphasis on data analytics. Data analytics will allow our leaders to make better decisions on our behalf. Blockchain technology will have to rely on data analytics to figure out potential wants and needs of it's participants, users, e-citizens, etc. At the same time private communication will be a necessity even if just to conduct surveys. The reason is people will not necessarily provide their real opinion in a survey which is completely transparent. The only solution I could find to the problem of preference falsification is privacy.
Most important of all is those who are put into positions of leadership are in trusted positions. This includes people who are moderators at forums, people who are lead developers, people who run exchanges. People who are in these positions have the responsibility to serve the blockchain community to the best of their ability. The abuse of these positions for personal power or personal gain is a violation of this trust and in these instances the community can and should select someone else for that position.
Bulbulia, J., & Sosis, R. (2011). Signalling theory and the evolution of religious cooperation. Religion, 41(3), 363-388.
Davis, W. L. (2004). Preference falsification in the economics profession. Econ Journal Watch, 1(2), 359.
Frank, R. H. (1996). The Political Economy of Preference Falsification: Timur Kuran's Private Truths, Public Lies. Journal of Economic Literature, 34(1), 115-123.
Grimm, P. (2010). Social desirability bias. Wiley international encyclopedia of marketing.
Sîrbu, A., Loreto, V., Servedio, V. D., & Tria, F. (2017). Opinion dynamics: models, extensions and external effects. In Participatory Sensing, Opinions and Collective Awareness (pp. 363-401). Springer, Cham.
De Lege Ferenda  is a series. Like the Tauchain Exegesis ,  is. One train of articles.
This is the introductory 'locomotive' article where I attempt to nail down the essential basics. This is nontrivial cause it requires compression of very long stream of thoughts and research. Spanning literally decades. In that sense some of the overcompressed categorical statements are also cognitive ''letters of credit''  or ''promisory notes''  - comprising debt of mine for future separate more detailed explanations to come. I'm afraid this is the only way the theses and conclusions of mine to be expressed in a reader-friendly way. Of course, questions and comments as mutual understanding accelerator are as always more than welcome.
Three ''angles of attack'' , in roman numerals and capitals in pure latin (the lingua franca  of law :) bellow:
Maybe I ,  already tired you with repeating my incantation of:
Law is Between, Code is Within , 
It is quite multi-dimensional in meanings and multi-disciplinary in consequences but here it comes to denote the unavoidability of Law. Rendered down to the most basic physics we currently know:
This is the way and reason why Law is enforceable and Code is executable. And the major categorial difference between them which makes the notion of 'code is law'  utter nonsense, as well as, it seems, also destroys the very basis of the notion of 'smart contracts' . But this belongs to bunch of other series of mine to come ...
Even if it was theoretically possible all effectors  to become one, there'd still be internal uncertainty fragmentation and thus unavoidability of enforcement.
Leaving this head-dizzying fundamental cognitive datum  and heading up across the higher abstraction epistemic layers  we reach the surface to take a swallow of fresh air to:
Nothing, read my lips, NO-THING in crypto or blockchain has ever been or could possible be extralegal.
Cuz there ain't a thing in any blockchain aspect which is not ... physical. Hence beyond the scope of Law.
Blockchain is most probably the arrival of the expected Hanson engine , or Szabo booster , or ultimate Clusivity management tool . Which makes it extremely important domain for proper legal treatment and regulation - both as taxonomy within the existing institutes of Law  - lex lata, and as creation of novel norms to cater it - lex ferenda .
(as a side note: expectedly the novel collective mnemonic technologies knows under the umbrella term of 'crypto' provide positive feedback loop to strengthen the Law, too - Tauchain  seems to promise  the advent of law, at last, as consistent and decidable set of rules, for first time ever.)
II. IURIS DICTIO
Law being inherently about physical, is also about spatiotemporal, i.e. about geography / geopolitics. It is always territorial even when it is cross-border applicable by the virtue of international law or internal rules to resolve inter-jurisdictional normative collisions.
The known world (I deliberately do not say: the planet, the Earth, or the globe because of ... of course - the Outer Space Law  !), is tessalated geographically into jurisdictions , . Countries or nations. The pattern pixels of the universal human jursdictional cellularity. But borders not as much divide as they connect.
The world is internet of jurisdictions no matter how yet primitive are the networking protocols and architecture. And because due to topological defficiencies this can not yet be a geodesic network  - some jurisdictions are special. And among the special there are some which are even more special than the merely special ones. The specialness stems from the fact of what a jurisdiction enjoyed gives to its user.
After decades of observation and practice and comparative studies I reached the conclusion that THE jurisdiction is the Principality of Liechtenstein ! 
Mere ennumeration of its features and the sheer lack of bugs would occupy a sizeable volume. Liechtenstein is not just an island periphery money hideout of an old fat imperial metropoly - it is a HUB. It is immersed  right into the middle of the healthiest-wealthiest community of EU .
What starts in Liechtenstein does not stay in Liechtenstein but swiftly propagates into the giant space of EEA . It is a keyhole jurisdiction straight into this most giant jurisdiction of jurisdictions - so strong in soft power  and so influential that even the FAMGA  seem to reckon Europe more than their own home jurisdiction .
Liechtenstein is simultaneously with deepest and most stable roots in the best of history and geography and is most advanced and ahead in the making of legislation of a highest probe of adequacy.
It does in 2018 - what I (and just a few others) predicted years ago to happen. We must herein admit that other jurisdictions do have some timid try-outs for legal codification of the blockchain but nothing compares with the comprehesive and in-depth approach of the Principality's legislators.
On 28th of August 2018 Liechtenstein published  a draft  of the new Blockchain Act:
<< On 28 August 2018, the Ministry for General Government Affairs and Finance of Liechtenstein published the consultation report on the new Blockchain Act (Act on Transaction Systems based on Trustworthy Technologies (VT) (Blockchain Act; VT Act; VTG)).
The government has decided to regulate not only the current Blockchain-applications (in particular cryptocurrencies and initial coin offerings (ICOs)), but also to establish a legal basis for the entire scope of application of the token economy according to a long-term approach, which should also meet the needs of future generations. >>
The basic provisions of the Liechtenstein Blockchain Act are exposed yet only in German language - which I'm not at all in command of and a language quite indgestable by the Google Transalte AI.
The consultation period ends on 16 November 2018, i.e. less than 2 months left from today.
My modest intention is by this De Lege Ferenda series of articles to provide my comments and opinions to 'whom it may concern' on the upcoming Liechtenstein Blockchain Act.
You already know I'm kinda fond of timelining and retrodictions.  :)
Every result has its cause, often hidden in the ocean of data what past is, and quite hard to distinguish.
US has its Captain America . Liechtenstein is lucky to have its Mr Liectenstein .
Andreas Erick Johannes Kohl Martinez of the House of Sequence . Remember that name.
Since the dawn of the blockchain era, I'm under the strong conviction that Liechtenstein is the true Crypto Valley  of the globe. So is Andreas, too. Purely by chance it occured that we both - long time before we knew eachother - have this astronomically improbable coincidence or synchronicity  of this and multitude of other thoughts.
Society of mind .
[*] - photo attributed to: By Michael Gredenberg - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=18962
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lex_ferenda
 - https://steemit.com/tauchain/@karov/tauchain-exegesis-intro
 - https://steemit.com/tauchain/@karov/tauchain-exegesis-the-two-towers
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Letter_of_credit
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Promissory_note
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angle_of_attack
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lingua_franca
 - http://www.behest.io/
 - https://steemit.com/blockchain/@karov/behest-for-tauchain
 - https://steemit.com/tauchain/@karov/tauchain-trumps-procrustics
 - https://steemit.com/tauchain/@karov/tauchain-and-the-cost-of-trust
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pauli_exclusion_principle
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fermion
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enforcement
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uncertainty_principle
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_will
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mutual_information
 - https://www.coindesk.com/code-is-law-not-quite-yet/
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smart_contract
 - https://steemit.com/tauchain/@karov/tauchain-over-de-latil
 - https://www.etymonline.com/word/data
 - https://steemit.com/tauchain/@karov/tauchain-the-hanson-engine
 - https://steemit.com/tauchain/@karov/tauchain-as-szabo-booster
 - https://steemit.com/tauchain/@karov/clusivity-by-tauchain
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lex_lata
 - http://www.idni.org/
 - http://www.idni.org/blog/tau-and-the-crisis-of-truth.html
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_law
 - https://www.etymonline.com/word/jurisdiction
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jurisdiction
 - https://steemit.com/blockchain/@karov/geodesic-by-tau
 - https://www.liechtenstein.li/en/
 - https://www.liechtenstein-business.li/en/economic-area/get-to-know/hidden-treasures/liechtenstein-combines-the-best-of-both-worlds/
 - http://europa.eu/
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Economic_Area
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soft_power
 - https://medium.com/crypto-oracle/why-cryptos-a-growing-threat-to-famga-a-k-a-facebook-apple-microsoft-google-and-amazon-ea237570d3ea
 - https://www.dw.com/en/eu-gives-facebook-twitter-ultimatum-on-consumer-protection-laws/a-45573561
 - https://www.pwc.ch/en/insights/regulation/liechtenstein-publishes-draft-of-the-new-blockchain-act.html
 - https://www.llv.li/files/srk/vnb-blockchain-gesetz.pdf
 - https://steemit.com/bitcoin/@karov/bitcoin-retrodictions
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Captain_America
 - https://podcast.bitcoin.com/e349-How-Libertarian-Leader-Mr-Liechtenstein-Got-Lucky
 - http://www.sequence.li/
 - https://www.businessinsider.com/what-its-like-in-zug-switzerlands-crypto-valley-2018-6
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synchronicity
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Society_of_Mind
 - https://steemit.com/tauchain/@karov/scaling-is-layering &https://steemit.com/tauchain/@karov/tauchain-transcaling
It's Thursday and I'm back, guys.
It's been long time, but here I'm again :)
This post theme was getting ripe in my head for long time. Something like since 2014.
Recently I got some data to put together the stepping stones for turning my mere suspicion into more of a grounded conclusion.
The problem was that it was also growing in width and depth with time, so here you are a momentary snapshot or sketch-map of it, which I intend to elaborate further on.
I'll start with shooting two slogan-missiles which constitute super-compression of lotsa research and which will be revisited soon in separate series of articles.
Trust is Force
''you trust 'em only as much as you can make 'em to...''
Money is Mnemonics
yes, precisely THIS is the core essence and function of ANY monetary system - (even the primordial barter one with its naturally emerging special tokens ,  to mitigate its intrinsic exponential wall  of unscalabiliuty , ) - to account or remember human activity. That is, money is always work to prove work. Basically we need to remember due to impossibility of simultaneity of transactions.
Which I already went over ... and, I beg your pardon. Three, not two slogans. The third one is:
Law is Between, Code is Within
Will explain later what I mean  and how it ties up with the former two. In a nutshell is about the enforceability as essential characteristic of all law and now will just hint that the reason why Force (coercion) is deemed to be fundamentally non-decentralizable is the Pauli exclusion principle  which is kinda ''location conservation law'' .
You already know ,  my taste for epystemological 'archaeology', that's why I think it is better to carry the story on in chronological order.
Back in 2014 I stumbled upon series of extremely astute and deep thought articles , , , ,  on the cost of several well known monetary systems in comparison with Bitcoin, which just has been grown enough to become visible for unaided eye.
I remember I discovered these great articles by the obviously great Hass McCook in the wake of the MtGox ,  boom and bust aftershock, when huge anxiety about the 'wastefullness' of the Bitcoin mining was reigning the public sentiment. (It happens everytime the price nears the production cost).
The search of mine which hit those was driven by the quite legitimate question of:
''If crypto is wasteful, then how much the traditional fiat costs us, god damn it?''
Well, the comparison turned up, as I suspected, not at all in favor neither of the quite recent demetalized fractalized-centralized double-entry book-keeping debts mnemonincs of the banknotes monetary system, nor in favor of the millennia old 'heavy metal' single-entry money where the physical possession of gold/silver denotes your purchase power...
And it occured it was not at all just about costs of mining, refining, casting, ink, printing press, storage, accounting, counterfaiting countermeasures, ... but the bill to pay includes also all the social infrastructure and capital devoted on the making the system to work, and to be kept ticking ...
Essentially all which is know as ... government. All its buildings, all its sallaried humans, all their guns, pens, pensions, courts, judges and bailiffs ... everything.
All that needed in order a common Ledger to be built, maintained, broadcasted and kept. The difference between government and governance is obvious - the former is the means to an end, the later is the end. The former is the machine, the later is the function.
Here is the place to insert three other quick notions which are in the pipeline for revisiting and furnishing with separate articles.:
Firstly, Mnemonics is subject of big evolutionary/development forces just as anything else into the combinatorial explosion which the universe, nature, society is ...
You noticed above the notion of money emergence kinda coinciding with writing? The Sumerian example.
Writing is mnemonics amplifier . Just like the combustion engines are transportation boosters .
The better memory and memory sharing system we have on our disposal the better money we have.
Money is technology .
Secondly, any book-keeping - regardless whether we write by hand on cave wall or papyri, or by blade on a wooden stick, or by most sophisticated laser-quantum methods on most sophisticated multi-dimensional crystals  - is, yeah, a function of writing. We can go even further and state that illiterate verbal folklore - the only thing we got for millions of years - is form of verbal writing onto each other's short-term/long-term memories, just like photography and sound recording is.
The important thing to note here is that in the light of ''Money is Mnemonics'' spell of mine - the accountancy systems do possess cardinality of entries , , .
And it seems that the mega-trend is:
''the more entries handled = the better our money is''
Fiat one - monetary and overall - is double-entry based and relies upon import of trust, blockchain is tripple-entry and trust is built-in. Blockchain is not 'trustless' but is 'autotrophic'  in regards with trust.
The third notion turns us back on track with the main theme of this article. It is that of the mutual entropy .
The Ledger, no matter which tech it uses to be, has as purpose to define how the individual people's acivity has to be limited for the sake of collective cooperation and collaboration.
The Ledger - product of the particular kind of Mnemonics in play - literally SHAPES and MAKES the society.
As kinda Sorites  or Holon  or Mereonomic  ... generator.
NOW, which costs more? Which one is more wasteful of all the known Ledger or Mnemonic or Monetary systems known?
Literally couple of days ago I stumbled upon ''The $29 trillion cost of trust'' from 24 Jul 2018 by Sinclair Davidson, Mikayla Novak and Jason Potts , which made this long time in the making article to come out.
Now I finally have put my eyes on some numbers to juggle with.
The ecumenical  or midgardic  GDP is evaluated on roughly rounded up ~$100t p.a.
There is lots of well grounded criticism  on the ability of the present day fiat financial system to actually manage to encompass and measure it all - but lets take this conditional good round figure for the global GDP.
The total wealth of ~quarter of $Quadrillion (giving total average depriciation / consumption rate of over a third per year).
GDP evaluates the dynamic part. The work.
Almost 1/3rd of all work is devoted to account for or to prove the work!
Visualize the fiat system as a primitive, primordial, predeluvial or perecursor form of PoW .
Funny enough this ~1/3rd global proof-of-work or mnemoic or governance cost strangely coincides with the energy budget of the brain  as fraction of the total energy a human body dissipates to live.
The last two pieces of research argumentation to close the topic are.:
I'm trully impressed by the depth of these two documents. It is as big as - each sentence backed by several book volumes of profound research.
Paul Sztorc convincingly demonstrates that PoW is the most efficient protocol for decentralization or 'trustlessness'. It appears that 'PoW is the cheapest' not only among the blockspace  but also cheapest everywhere and everywhen.
Mr. Game and Watch evaluates that if in the present day 100-ish $Trills strong global economy there was nothing but Bitcoin as a form of money - the value of a single BTC would be worth millions of $.
''Banknote waste diﬀers from other types of monetary waste in that it is much harder to perceive, by virtue of the complex nature of banknote creation. In contrast, Bitcoin mining directly consumes electricity, and gold mining obviously requires engineers, machinery, armed guards and so forth. At ﬁrst glance, it seems incredible that impoverished hunter-gatherers would devote some of their precious time to the manufacture of silly beads and shells and other collectibles. And, it seems wasteful indeed, that we humans use our powerful brains primarily to obsess over what other people think of us. All of these activities are wasteful,in a narrow sense, but in a broader sense they maintain the infrastructure required to promote and sustain cooperation. These are social activities – we engage in them because we are not alone.''
Apparently monetary system which involves humans to function is unscalable. In the preTau. It is far easier and unlimited as capacity to grow our electricity and machinery resources, than to replicate humans. 
Intuitively, the lower the Cost of Trust the stronger the society, the bigger and with higher acceleration is the growth of the economy, the higher is the affluence and wealth. , , , , , .
If hypothetically the Cost of Trust is zero, the value of the economy will be infinite?
The endogenous automation of production and distribution of trust which the blockchain enables many orders of magntitude lowering of the cost of trust, compared with the present hand-driven system. (As an example - Satoshi himself posited aka 'payment channels'  and Lightning Network  and such promise hundreds of thousands of times smaller transaction costs all internal to the trusltessness environment of blockchain without to rely upon human work to prove work ...)
At the end, what has Tauchain in common with that all?
Well, lotsa things. I'm light years if not infinitely far from any generalization and systematization, but here you are an improvised list ... of questions :
Please, you continue ...
 - https://www.thoughtco.com/clay-tokens-mesopotamian-writing-171673
 - http://www.ancientpages.com/2017/07/08/intriguing-sumerian-clay-tokens-ancient-book-keeping-system-used-long-writing-appeared/
 - https://arxiv.org/abs/1703.02572
 - https://steemit.com/tauchain/@karov/scaling-is-layering
 - https://steemit.com/tauchain/@karov/tauchain-transcaling
 - http://www.behest.io/ & https://steemit.com/blockchain/@karov/behest-for-tauchain
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pauli_exclusion_principle
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conservation_law
 - https://steemit.com/bitcoin/@karov/bitcoin-retrodictions
 - https://steemit.com/blockchain/@karov/geodesic-by-tau
 - https://www.coindesk.com/microscope-true-costs-gold-production/
 - https://www.coindesk.com/microscope-real-costs-dollar/
 - https://www.coindesk.com/microscope-true-costs-banking/
 - https://www.coindesk.com/microscope-economic-environmental-costs-bitcoin-mining/
 - https://thebitcoin.pub/t/under-the-microscope-conclusions-on-the-costs-of-bitcoin/44457
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mt._Gox
 - https://oracletimes.com/mt-gox-bitcoin-whale-trustee-seized-selling-bitcoin-btc/
 - https://steemit.com/tauchain/@karov/tauchain-the-hanson-engine
 - https://steemit.com/tauchain/@karov/tauchain-as-szabo-booster
 - https://winklevosscapital.com/money-is-broken-but-its-future-is-not/
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/5D_optical_data_storage
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Single-entry_bookkeeping_system
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Double-entry_bookkeeping_system
 - https://bitcoinmagazine.com/articles/triple-entry-bookkeeping-bitcoin-1392069656/
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autotroph
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mutual_information
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sorites_paradox
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holon_(philosophy)
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mereology
 - https://medium.com/@cryptoeconomics/the-29-trillion-cost-of-trust-be8ffbd5788d
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecumene
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Midgard
 - https://steemit.com/tauchain/@karov/tauchain-trumps-procrustics
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proof-of-work_system
 - http://www.pnas.org/content/99/16/10237
 - http://www.truthcoin.info/blog/pow-cheapest/
 - https://www.scribd.com/document/354688866/Bitcoin-A-5-8-Million-Valuation-Crypto-Currency-and-A-New-Era-of-Human-Cooperation
 - http://www.truthcoin.info/blog/blockspace-demand/
 - https://steemit.com/blockchain/@karov/tau-through-the-moravec-prism
 - https://steemit.com/tauchain/@karov/masa-effect-with-tauchain
 - https://steemit.com/tauchain/@karov/tutor-ex-machina
 - https://steemit.com/tauchain/@karov/tauchain-trumps-procrustics
 - https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf
 - https://lightning.network/
 - https://steemit.com/tauchain/@karov/tauchain-in-the-algoverse
 - http://www.juliansimon.com/writings/Ultimate_Resource/ & https://orionsarm.com/fm_store/Population.pdf
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cybernetics & https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Control_theory
''Tau solves the problems from the Tower of Babel to the Tower of Basel''
- an early 21st century yet undisclosable author
Okay, dearest friends, lets pull sleeves up and start with it. Vivisection of the Scriptures? Revelation by transfiguration? Pulling the Tau from the ocean of wisdom out on the dry no-Maths-land? I hope not.
The quote above on first glance sounds so pompously biblical, but in fact it denotes the crystal clear and simple practical and mundane rationale of Tau which I already tried to approach from few angles , .
It is about the hierarchic bottleneck of one unscaling ,  Humanity. Take the hint about leveling of the Towers as a poetic symbol of elimination of the social 'verticality' -- the hierarchies as a so far necessary evil to compensate certain innate neurological limitations , , ,  -- and reforming  the network we are embedded into and usually call mankind or society or economy or world into an as geodesic as possibly possible one . For the sake of its own functional programmatic optimization .
Notice that towers leveling is not by demolition, but by uplifting the overall landscape level to and above the tower tops, turning them into deep roots or support pylons of asymptotically geodesic society .
Apparently, mentioning the Gate of God  denotes the unmixing  of languages & mentioning the apex global fiat settlement institution  - the excelling of the current fiat procrustics  i.e. the economy aspect.
That is: TML to Agoras . The first and last of the totally six identified aspects or steps of the social choice  as addressed by what we call Tau.
''our six steps of language, knowledge, discussion, collaboration, choice, and knowledge economy''
These aspects deserve of course separate zoom-in exegetic chapters and they'll definitely get it. I promise. And not only they.
Any exegesis of Tau unavoidably must start with scroll back and tracking down of the full history of the development so far. As a zoom out to see the full picture and to identify the dominant features of the landscape relief.
You, I reckon, already noticed this retrodictive inclination of mine , that in my mind the notion of ''Timeline of Development'' can not be by any logic just a handful of milestone promises thrown into the future, but it is a must to account for the up to now trajectory, too! No future without past.
It all started as Zennet , continued as Tau-chains  and 'turned' into aka 'newtau' , , , .
Wait! A New Tau?
Excuse me, Ohad, but I personally do not buy that and I said it many times. There ain't old and new Tau. The situation is much more straightforward and grokkable . Here it is:
Lotsa guts, balls, butt, brains or whatever human offal... is required for each of us to admit a mistake made in our everyday life. Generally quite a strength is needed to even look ourselves into the mirror...
It takes a whole Ohad though, to keep all oneself's work totally public and transparent even on the full and unedited live record of the infil  into entire branch of mathematics  and then throwing it all away as untauful. We witnessed that reported in real time!
Did this change the ends? No. But sorted out the means to an end.
Was it a 'mistake'? In no case. It was duly delivered R&D effort.
Was oldtau looking promising on first glance? Yes, of course it did.
Did it survive the Ohad's R&D 'crash-testing'? No, it didn't.
Was it a ''juice worth the sqweeze''? It was.
Was it a job well done? Absolutely.
The oldtau materials are for me legacy jewels. Like those dinosaur bugs trapped into blobs of amber .
Development is a process, not just results shipping. Related like cooking and serving.
Studying the zoom-out dev map we observe these few major landmarks:
The Zennet province is all right. Its gently rolling hills gradually merge into the Tau lands proper with the inevitable realization that a 'world supercomputer' can not be a Tauless thing. Zennet lives in Tau with .:
''... having a decentralized search engine requires Zennet-like capabilities, the ability to fairly rent (and rent-out) computational resources, under acceptable risk in the user's terms (as a function of cost). Our knowledge market will surely require such capabilities, and is therefore one of the three main ingredients of Agoras... hardware rent market...''
We move over through the oldtau wastelands  where the burnt ruins of MLTT  lie scattered - rough oldtau location-on-the-map indicator is the fall of 2015 with
''Tau as a Generalized Blockchain'' - posted Oct 17, 2015, 6:33 AM [updated Oct 17, 2015, 6:49 AM]
and then we reach the fertile gardens of newtau  in the fall of 2017:
''The New Tau'' - posted Dec 31, 2017, 12:27 AM [updated Dec 31, 2017, 12:28 AM]
Hmm. Apparently we crossed a watershed. Which relief feature it was? - The ridge  of:
''Tau and the Crisis of Truth'' - posted Sep 10, 2016, 8:25 PM [updated Sep 10, 2016, 8:28 PM]
Tau sorts out the Towers. I hope that the synopsis in this short chapter of Exegesis helped to sort out Tau dev in time as a navigation lookup tool.
Software is nothing but states of hardware. There is that intimate deep, not yet codified into a neat compact of logic, connection between Gödel , Heisenberg  and Laws of thermodynamics .
Tau keeps us off these traps.
I do not dare to state that someday we won't have the command on infinities and to play with them with the ease  of
''... a boy playing on the seashore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.''
In fact, quite the opposite I'd rather take it as inevitability someday we to conquer the Cantor  expanses and to venture far even beyond that. To transcale  the transfinite. Like Hilbert  said it.:
''Aus dem Paradies, das Cantor uns geschaffen, soll uns niemand vertreiben können. (From the paradise, that Cantor created for us, no-one can expel us.)''
But it takes ... finitary vehicles of DECIDABILITY to conquer the transfinitary outer spaces. Because, in order to dear to dream to tame the infinities, we must first harness and get full command of finities.
Including of ourselves. Tau is ''understanding each other''. Without Tau we are ... others to ourselves.
Imperare sibi maximum imperium est.
In a recent article of mine  I hinted my strong suspicion that scaling is itself scalable.
''Scaling is a problem. Scaling must be scalable, too. Metascale from here to Eternity.''
No matter what a terrific grower a system is - as per its own internal algorithmic growth drive rules - it seems inevitable its growth to get it into entropic mutualization  upon impact with a kind of a ... downscaler.
Scaling is everything, yeah. But it is quite intuitive and supported by too big body of evidence to ignore, that, paradoxically: the faster a thing grows - the sooner its encounter with an external and bigger downscaling factor comes.
This realization, refracted through the prism of our 'reptilian brain' layer  amplified to gargantuan proportions by our inherent social hierarchicity  is the source of the 'Malthusian  anxiety' which led to countless violent deaths over all the human history. Fear is anger , so the emotion that there is only as much to go around, and that the catastrophe of 'running out' of something is imminent, is the major source of what makes us bad to each other .
There are plethora of examples of very well mathematically and scientifically grounded doomsayer scenarios, and we must admit that they all correct as per their internal axiomatics  , and simultaneously they are all totally wrong for missing out the obvious - the factors of externalities  , the properties and opportunities of the medium which is consumed and/or created by this growth, and which transcend the axiomatics. For growth being always 'growth into'. The fact that doomsday scenarios are so compellingly consistent internally is what makes them so strong and dangerous ideological weapon of mass destruction .
Lets throw some such problem-solution couples for clarity:
a. the world of 1890es big cities sunk up knee-deep into beast of burden manure , and the super-apocalyptic projections of that VS Tony Seba's  1 pic > 1000 words of NYC carts vs cars situations in 1900 -1913 ...
b. the grim visions of the whole Mankind becoming telephone switchboard blue collar workers , the number of which should've exceeded the number of total world population by now to achieve the same level of telephonization or
c. the all librarians world  where it takes more librarians than the whole mankind to serve the social memory in the paper & printed ink storage facilities mode ...
d. the Club of Rome  as the noisiest modern bird of ill omen with 'projections' based on the same blind extrapolations as the urban seas of shit or the 'proofs' of the impossibility to connect or educate or feed all - instigating mass destruction fear that ''we run out of everything and will soon all die'' , used for justification for mass atrocities VS Julian Simon's  - the ''Ultimate Resource'' (1981, 1996) . Cf.: my accelerando article  and see what precisely is the Factory for succession of better and better Hanson drives for the last few millions of years - from the Blade and the Fire to the Tau - it is the same thing which identification made Julian Simon from fanatical Maltusianist  into rationally convinced Cornucopian  ... the human mind.
e. the predator-pray model  which this pseudo-haiku  I guess depicts best how's it brutally flawed:
''hawk eat chic -> less chic, human eat chic -> more chic''
for missing out to posit and failure to account for positive feedback loop  of predator over pray dynamics ...
f. The comment of Dary Oster  , founder of the other passion of mine - ET3 , on the aka 'saturation' of the scalables (exemplified in the field of transportation, which btw, being communication ... our social structures map onto mobility systems we have on disposal ... ).:
''... US transportation growth has focused on automobile/roads (and airline/airport) developments. (And this has been VERY good for the US economy.) The reason is that cars/jets offered far better MARKET VALUE than horse/buggy/train transport did 150 years ago. In the mid 1800s, trains displaced muscle power for travel between cities - because trains offered better market value than ox carts. Trains reached 'market saturation' about 1895 to 1905 (becoming 'unsustainable') - however 'market momentum' produced 20 years of 'overshoot'. Cars/jets were far more sustainable than passenger trains and muscle power, and started to displace trains (and finish off horses). By 1916 the US rail network peaked at 270,000 miles (today less than 130,000 miles is in use).Just like passenger trains hit market saturation, roads/airports are reaching economic limitations. The time is ripe for a market disruption, and all indicators (past and present) say it will NOT come from, or be supported by government or academia -- but from private sector innovations that offer a 10x value improvement (like ET3), AND also offer incentives for most (not all) key industries to participate (like ET3). Automated cars, smart highways, and electronic ride sharing are industry responses that will contribute to overshoot of cars/roads for the next 5-10 years.The main problem i see with the education system is that is that academic research and publication on transportation is primarily funded by status quo industries like: railroads and rail equipment manufactures, highway builders, automobile/truck manufactures, engineering firms, etc. -- all who fund research centered on 'improving' the status quo.Virtually all universities (for the last 1k years+) are set up to drive incremental improvements that industry demands, and virtually all paradigm shifts are resisted until AFTER they occur and are first adopted by industry. Government is the same (for instance in 1905 passing laws to forbid cars that were disrupting horse traffic; or in 1933 passing laws to limit investment in innovation startups to the wealthy (those successful in the status quo)).''
g. Darwinian algo  sqrt(n) VS higher algos - like Metcalfe n^2 . It is not precise, it is more of metaphorical, to indicate direction or scale of scaling, rather then rigorous precision, but ... the former figuratively speaking takes 100 times more to put up 10 times more, and the later takes 10 times more to return 100 times more...
h. Barter vs money. See.:  bottom of page 5 over the bottomline notes, about the later:
simpliﬁes pricing calculations and negotiations from O(n^2) complexity to O(n) complexity
As demonstration how one item out of a scaling barter system, emerges as specialized transactor and accelerator to transcale the barter economy. From within. Endogenously as always. (btw, Extremely strong document where there are entire books read and internalized behind each tight and contentful sentence!)
i. The heat death of the universe  VS the realization that the 2nd law  - conservation law for entropy/information law does not allow that , the asymptoticity  of the fundamental limits of nature, the fact that max entropy grows faster than/from/due to the actual antropy growth  and that entropy is not disorder  and that at the end of the day it is an unbounded immortal universe  ... cause it's all a combinatorial explosion .
j. The Anthropic principle  and the realization that it is extremely hard if not impossible to posit a lifeless universe  ...
k. The Algoverse - my 'psychedelic' vision  of the asymptotic inexorable hierarchy of the Dirac sea  of lower algos which take everything for almost nothing - up towards giving almost everything for almost nothing - Bucky Fuller's runaway Ephemeralization . Algorithms are things. Objects. Structure. Homoousic or consubstantial to their input and output. Things taking things and making things outta the former. Including other algos of course! Stronger ones.
l. The Masa Effect . The Master of Softbank seeing how the machine productivity is on the imminent course to massively overscale the human clients base and his apparent transcaling solution to upscale the clients base with bots and chips, with the same which scales supply in such a too-much way. 
m. The Pierre the Latil 1950es and Stanislaw Lem 1960es ( copied 1:1 by Tegmark  ) hierarchy . Of degrees of self-creating freedom of Effectors ...
n. Limits of growth - present in any particular moment and in any finitary setting of rules ,  but nonexistent in the infinity of rules upgradability. Like a cancer cell trapped in a cage of light  vs ... photosynthesis.
o. Ray Kurzweil - static vs exponential thinking .
p. Craig Venter's  Human Genome project  which when commenced in 1990 was ridiculed that will be unbearably expensive and will take centuries to finish, and it did - it costed a unbearable for 1990 fortune and it did take centuries, of subjective time as per the initial projections conditions - being completed in year 2000.
q. Jeff Bezos vision  of Solar System wide Mankind:
''The solar system can easily support a trillion humans. And if we had a trillion humans, we would have a thousand Einsteins and a thousand Mozarts and unlimited, for all practical purposes, resources.''
r. The 'wastefulness' of data centers and crypto mining collocation facilities  ... which is as funny as to envy the brain for 'wasting' >25% of the body energy. (Btw, the tech megatrend is exponentially and relentlessly towards the minimum calculation energy).
s. The log-scale intuitive measure and smooth straight line visualization coming out of, this quote which I fished out off the net long time ago.:
"The singularities are happening fairly regularly but at an increasing rate, every 500 to 1000 billion man-years (the total sum of the worldwide population over time). The baby boom of the 1950 is about 200 Billion man-years ago."
ops! go back to Q. With 1 trln. humans population the 'singularities' will occur once a year?!
t. the Tau  !!
I can continue with these examples ... forever [wink] - excuse me if I've bored you - but I think that at least that minimum was needed to be shown and it is enough to grok the big picture.
Scaling is the solution. It is a problem too. Its overcoming is what I dub 'Transcaling' for the purpose of that study.
Size matters. Scaling is the way. But the more general is how a system handles change! This is as fundamental as to be in the very core of definition of life and intelligence .
Tauchain is all about change handling!
Now, lets knit the 'blockchain' of these all example threads above into a knot like the Norns do :
Dear friends, please, scroll back to Example D. Yes, the human mind transcaler thing. The Ultimate resource thing.
We are the ultimate resourse.
We the humans (and soon the whole zoo of our technological imitations and reproductions and transcendences of ourselves ).
We as the-I  are strong thinkers and creators, immensely more road lies ahead than it's been traveled, yes, but yet we, as the-I, are the momentary apex in the Effectoring business  in the Known universe ... AND simultaneously we as the-We are mediocre to outright dumb.
We are very far from proper scaling together. The Ultimate resource is not coherent and is not ... collimated. Scattered dim lights, but not a powerful bright mind laser. Dispersed fissibles, but not a concentration of critical masses.
We as The-We - paradoxically- persistently finds ways to transcale its destinies using the power of the-I, but the-We itself does not entertain the scaling well at all .
The individual human mind is the unscaled transcaler.
Tau is the upscaler of that transcaler.
I'll introduce herewith another 'poetic' neologism, which occurred to me to depict the scaling props of a system after the Scrooge factor of ''Tauchain - Tutor ex Machina'' , and it is the:
Spawn  factor
- the capacity and ability of a system to grow through, despite, against, across, from and via the changes. Just like cuboid  is about all rectangular things like squares, cubes, tesseracts ... regardless of their dimensionality, the Spawn Factor - to be a generalization of all orders of scaling. Zillion light years from rigor, of course, as I'm on at least the same distance from my Leibnizization . For the lawyer to become a mathematician is what is for a caterpillar to become a a butterfly. :) Transcaling.
Tau transcends the infinite regress of orders of: scaling of scaling of scaling ... by being self-referential. Or recursive. 
What is the Spawn factor of Tau?
If you let me I'll illustrate this by a poetic periphrasis of the famous piece of Frank Herbert's .:
I will face my change. I will permit it to pass over me and through me. And when it has gone past I will turn the inner eye to see its path. Where the change has gone there will be nothing. Only I will remain.
“A human being should be able to change a diaper, plan an invasion, butcher a hog, conn a ship, design a building, write a sonnet, balance accounts, build a wall, set a bone, comfort the dying, take orders, give orders, cooperate, act alone, solve equations, analyze a new problem, pitch manure, program a computer, cook a tasty meal, fight efficiently, die gallantly. Specialization is for insects.”
― Robert A. Heinlein 
No, it is not a vow everybody to be everything. It is a reflection of the fundamental human fungibility . The average human can be taught to take any human role. The exceptions of true organic geniuses (those who are hard to be replaced) and morons (those who are incapable to replace), only confirm this general rule of shear numbers . This is what makes the mankind so scalable .
''Know'' is synonymous with ''can''. Literally. Knowledge = technology. Even etymologically . Knowledge is praxis . Only. There ain't such thing as impractical knowledge. If it is not a skill, it is not knowledge. I mentioned once  that we're all AIs. Ref.: feral children .
We are not what we eat , but we are what we've learnt. You are what you know/can. And you can what you have learnt. Learning is from the taking side. Teaching is on the giving side. Of one and a same process. We do not have a word to denote the modulus  of learning/teaching, it seems. But it will come.
We are taught by the others, the society. We are the cherry ontop of a layer cake of culture onto nature . We are learning by ... living. We acquire skills in plethora of contexts from family, street, school, job, media ... Learning  is not a monopoly of man, countless systems are also learners. Maybe one of the basic definitions of life and intelligence is the ability to learn . Giant topic, yeah. We won't graze into it here now on what is learning, but on how we learn.
Due to our neurological bottlenecks we spontaneously form hierarchies . This hinders our scalabilty  by forcing humanity to be more or less a fractal of 5. We are close to a number of breakthroughs which to mitigate these innate limitations of ours into a number of ways    . But the general case is not subject of this article - herein we focus on HOW we are taught. How we acquire knowledge, and how this knowledge of ours gets recognized and utilized by society. And the hierarchic emergent structuring is of course in full force upon us in teaching as well as into everything social else.
So comes education , such comes exam , knowledge certification , certified skills application , knowledge creation verification , job fitness testing , CVs and employer recommendations ... etc., etc. With all the bugs and the so little features of this 'map is not the territory' , situation.
It is all centralized and hierarchic - exactly as the global fractal of double-entry accountancy ledgers which we call fiat financial system is. In fact it is so interwoven with fiat finance than it is almost inextricable from it . And as much inefficient and imprecise.
In all these years of talking and thinking on Tauchain  - I noticed - and this suspicion of mine incrementally turns into shear conviction - that Tau, the upscaler of humanity, inevitably also is the ultimate teaching machine. If education is facilitating of learning, Tau is the maximizer of learning. By its very construction, it comes out so.
People talk and listen whenever and whatever they want. Tau has unlimited capacity to listen and attend and remember, and answer. Only limited by the hardware capacity allocated. Tau extracts meaning. Purifies the stream, distills it down to the essence. Detects repetitions, contradictions and all other, ubiquitous nowadays conversation bugs. Remembers changes of opinions of the individual user. And points them out. Sounds like the best tool to know oneself. And the others to know you if you let them.
Your Tau account or profile is what you know. You say what you say and also ask. Say statements and questions. Tau pools you together with the others who state the same and, more importantly, who ask the same type of questions. Knowing what you know, and asking about what you don't know but want to know, maps not only your knowledge state but also maps your knowledge dynamics. Records and drives how your knowledge changes. You even have access to what you forget, and can recollect it. True real time knowledge state reporting. For first time in human history.
If consciousness  is - aside from the clinical state of being merely awake - the post-factum integration of senso-motoric experience , the Accountant of mind, the speaker of the narrative which is you, then Tau is your consciousness booster. That is - stronger than thought.
The ultimate teaching, the ultimate fair testing or exam, the ultimate real-time comprehensive diploma, or certificate, super-peer reviewed paper(s) of you as academic carrer.., the ultimate job interview AND the ultimate ... job of being working as yourself and anything useful you create to be instantly scarcifiable and monetizable - your Tau account is! And all the rest of accessible socoety - being your own workforce. And you to them. In the billions. In a move. In real time.
Including control over the pathways of increase of your skills towards the most productive personally for you learning directions, because it aids you to analyze the you-Tau history and to apply knowledge maximizer techniques and to participate profitably into creation of newer better ones. Maximizer of self. And maximizer of society making it to consist of max-selfs. Ever improving. Merger of education with work occupation. Work-as-you-live.
The literal Knowledge Economy, as described by @trafalgar in his article  from few months ago. Where search, creation, reflection, certification, recognition, commercialization, accumulation, modification, improvement ... everything of knowledge - is all in one.
And it is not only Humans and Tau lonely job. I foresee the other Machines to join the party . Yes, I mean machines capable to have interests and to ask and seek answers of palatable questions.
This - the education amplification - to come down the technology way - has been, of course, anticipated by many. Few arbitrary examples:
- A distant rough-sketch hint for the inevitable tuition power of Tau is Neil Stephenson's  ''The Diamond age''  , with the depicted: '' Or, A Young Lady's Illustrated Primer '' , as an interactive networked teaching device.
- or if I'm right about the inevitable conquest of the natural languages territory  - UX  like in the 'Her' (2013) film .
- Thomas Frey  of the futurist DaVinci Institute  in his book ''Epiphany Z''  paid special attention of this.: down the way of micro- and nano-education, an effective merger of the processes of education, diplomas issuing, job application, exam and actual execution of job obligations. Tom does not know about Tau. But I'll tell him.
With a big smile of irony and self-irony of course... these examples. Just to pick from here and there proofs of the giant anticipation of what's to come. And taken with a few big grains of salt. Cause the reality will be immensely more powerful.
Tutor , tuition , my emphasis via using exactly this wording, comes to denote the economic side of learning/teaching. It is about the cost of learning - the association of tuition with fees, about the placement of the acquired skills, about the business organization of those, about the protection of ownership and security of transaction of knowledge ... Let me introduce here a neologism  which to reflect the business side of it:
Scrooge Factor 
- Simply denoting the money-making power of a technology use by a business. The 'money suction power' of a business entity or organization of any kind coming from the application of a technology, if you want. Technology as socialized knowledge. Scaled up over multiple humans. Over a society. Of course the Scrooge Factor can pump in different directions. The Scrooge Factor of the traditional hierarchic education, governance and everything ... is apparently very often negative - hierarchies decapitalize, dissipate, waste. Orders of magnitude more wasteful than any PoW , but on this - some other time.
So aside from all the niceties of the abstractions of the full supply and value chains of a Knowledge economy, lets round up some numbers:
- We know that a true functional semantic search engine alone is worth $10t. Yeah. Tens of Trills. Trillions. As per the assessments of Davos WEF attendees of as far as I remember 2015 or 2016...
- Also, Bill Gates stated back in 2004  that ''If you invent a breakthrough in artificial intelligence, so machines can learn,'' Mr. Gates responded, ''that is worth 10 Microsofts.''
- Tom Frey  also argued  that by 2030 the biggest corporation in the world will be an online school. Given the present day size and growth rate  of, say, Amazon  this 'online school' should be in the range of good deal of trillions of marcap if it is to be bigger than the biggest corporations. But we do not need such indirect analogies over analogies to access the scale. The shear size of the global education industry is the most eloquent indicator . Note that Tom talks about 'corporation' i.e. for clumsy and inefficient hierarchic human collective. Not for a system which does this orders of magnitude more efficiently and powerfully due to being intrinsically P2P, i.e. geodesic . Even the best futurologists can be forgiven for missing to predict Tau. :)
And this mind-boggling hail of trillions, does not even account for the Hanson Engine  factor.
Tau the Tutor ex Machina is just another unintended useful consequence outta the overall design.
It is nearly impossible to track and contemplate exactly what all these 'side-effects' would be and how they will synergetically boost each other.
With my articles I intend to only touch some lines of the immense phase space  of the possibilia, with neither any ambition to think it is possible to cover it all, nor this to represent any form of advice.
Future is incompressible. Compression is comprehension. Comprehensible only by living.
Failure to go to the geodesic way of learning, will turn these beautiful but trilling words into prophecy:
"The most merciful thing in the world, I think, is the inability of the human mind to correlate all its contents. We live on a placid island of ignorance in the midst of black seas of infinity, and it was not meant that we should voyage far. The sciences, each straining in its own direction, have hitherto harmed us little; but some day the piecing together of dissociated knowledge will open up such terrifying vistas of reality, and of our frightful position therein, that we shall either go mad from the revelation or flee from the deadly light into the peace and safety of a new dark age." H.P.Lovecraft  (1926 ).''
Size matters. Some people object that it does not matter, but has meaning. But meaning always matters, so it is the same.
The bigger problems one solves, the bigger the gains. Big problems require big solutions. We live in a big universe and our very survival is to deal with bigger and bigger problems, which require bigger and bigger solutions to cope.
But nevertheless to build big is hard so we naturally prefer to create small things which can grow. Small from point of view both of understandable and affordable to build. So best fit are small solutions, cheap and easy to make which scale out or unfold or unleash into big means to address big problems. Scaling is everything.
Scaling. Scalable! Scalability !!
The root-word 'scale' possesses marvelous riches of meaning in English language  with lots of poetics inside.:
 snake skin epidermals - wisdom, memory, protection, rejuvenation, regeneration, eternity...
hen to pan (ἓν τὸ πᾶν), "the all is one"
 warrior armour - security, defense, power, strength.
 weighting scales - device to measure mass, unit, measure, account.
all very Blockchainy wording without any shadow of doubt.
The scalability issues could be grokked  with the following anecdote:
Bunch of workers on a construction site and a huge log. The onsite manager commands a few of them to lift and move it. They try and object ''Too heavy!''. The manager adds more and more workers, until they shout back again: ''Too short!''.
A few real examples, the first two - bad and the last three excellent:
[a] I won't name this 'crypto' just will say it is named after a mythical element of the universe, according to the prescientific gnostic  imaginations. It's core 'value proposition is to shovel meaningful computation into a thread of computation which very value proposition is to be as random, meaningless and unidirectional (hard to do, easy to prove) as possibly possible - the blockchain. The theoretically most expensive form of computation. Visualize: cars and airplanes made of gold and diamonds burning most expensive perfumes. Or mass production of electricity by raising trillions of cats and hiring trillions of people to pet them with grid of pure gold wires to discharge and collect the electrostatics. If they have chosen the original Satoshi blockchain  for their 'experiments' - where the futility of such attempt would become instantly clear and would die out outright due to impending unbearable cost - will of course be more fair way to do, and would've spared dozens of billions of dollars to the Mankind, but logically they preferred a 'controlled' blockchain of their own. In a sense that the guys with vested interest into it have the power to hand-drive, stop, restart and vivisect it. The only use of this 'blockchain supercomputer' is ... tokenomics by Layering. Why it was at all necessary for a blockchain advertised as so good as to do all the general computation, to be made so hairy and bushy with layered tokens??
[b] Another trio of chaps, won't mention names again, were really at awe with Satoshi's creation, so much that they not just liked, but wanted it and decided to have it. For themselves. All of it. And rebelled and forked out and provided 'scaling' errrmm ... uhhh... solution. By increasing the blocksize. Something which Satoshi meditated on, extensively discussed with his disciples and not occasionally decided to put breaks on.  Very recently the crypto news headlines said that the blocksize increase solution providers are eyeing ... Layering. Which they furiously were advocating that blocksize increase makes unnecessary. Cause it is the solution, isn't it? Or maybe it just was. And is not anymore? Well, I'd say that all the aka 'alts'  - to provide a rejuvenated clone of Bitcoin tweeked here and there to provide momentary ease of difficulty and transaction fees - suffer from one and a same problem - traveling back in time does not tell you the future.
[c] Lets jump half a century back in time. It is 1960es. The very making of internet. Computers are already here and scaled up in numbers so their networking to become a problem/juice worth the solution/squeeze. The birth of TCP/IP  and the report of the very makers of it. Of the solution for the network scaling. Enjoy the ancient wisdom:
Initially, the TCP managed both datagram transmissions and routing, but as the protocol grew, other researchers recommended a division of functionality into protocol layers. Advocates included Johnatan Postel of the University of Southern California's Information Sciences Institute, who edited the Request for Comments (RFCs), the technical and strategic document series that has both documented and catalyzed Internet development. Postel stated, "We are screwing up in our design of Internet protocols by violating the principle of layering." Encapsulation of different mechanisms was intended to create an environment where the upper layers could access only what was needed from the lower layers. A monolithic design would be inflexible and lead to scalability issues. The Transmission Control Program was split into two distinct protocols, the Transmission Control Protocol and the Internet Protocol.
The layering made the Internet as we know it. By the simple trick of just one node needed to permit another. Unstoppable inclusivity!
[d] The Mastercoin / Omni Layer :
«A common analogy that is used to describe the relation of the Omni Layer to bitcoin is that of HTTP to TCP/IP: HTTP, like the Omni Layer, is the application layer to the more fundamental transport and internet layer of TCP/IP, like bitcoin».
[e] The Lightning network (LN) :
The Lightning Network is a "second layer" payment protocol that operates on top of a blockchain (most commonly Bitcoin).
Satoshi spoke on 'payment' channels in his masterpiece. Foreseeing the way to scale.
An estimate of the power of LN layering .:
''The bitcoin devs accept that eventually larger block sizes will be needed. The current transaction rate isn't going to cut it if people all over the world actually start using bitcoin daily. They estimate that eventually, if everyone in the world uses bitcoin and makes 2 transactions a day, but uses the lightning network, a 133mb blocksize will be needed. Without the lightning network, something like a 200gb (GIGABYTE) size PER BLOCK would be needed to accommodate that much usage.''
Layering upscales it with orders of magnitude of higher efficiency.
If Bitcoin is the 'first layer' and Omni and Lightning are 'second layer', I see which one is the 'Zeroth Layer' and also foresee  the inevitability of the merger or 'Amalgamation' of all second layers over all blockchains, so the user will be able to transact everything into anything to anybody, without to know or care which chain is in use ... I have special nicknames for these and will go back to these topics in series of future posts.
Enough of examples I reckon.
The Postel's sacred Principle of Layering comes from the implementation levels paradigm.
or Abstraction layering :
''separations of concerns to facilitate interoperability and platform independence''
With other words - delegate the task to that layer of the system which does the particular job best. We can generalize this into The Scaling Commandment. Only one enough:
''Thou shalt not jam it all into a single layer!''
The Layer Cake architecture is literally ubiquitous across the Universe.: biology, semantics, informatics ...
It seems that it is if not the only, at least THE way to scale.
Maybe, someday, we the Humanity, upscaled by Tauchain will discover more powerful than Layering ways to Scale, but it is all we have for now.
Scaling is a problem. Scaling must be scalable, too.
Metascale from here to Eternity.
To zoom out is useful. It puts the events networks of our spacetime in perspective. Including on what the great Jorje Luis Borges was calling the Orbis Tertius :
''ORBIS TERTIUS. "Tertius" (Latin = third) is an allusion to: World 3: the world of the products of the human mind, defined by Karl Popper.''
Poetically stated, ''retrodiction studies'' , ,  enables us to get a glimpse on the "clear, cold lines of eternity".
Back in 20th century Prof Robin Hanson put together this extremely insightful and strong document .
Long-Term Growth As A Sequence of Exponential Modes,
Economy grows. [see: Footnote]. Unstoppable.
Hanson's unprecedented contribution was to provide us with systematic orientation tool on how and why economy grows.
It accelerates. See:
Mode Doubling Date Began Doubles Doubles Transition
Grows Time (DT) To Dominate of DT of WP CES Power
---------- --------- ----------- ------ ------- ----------
Brain size 34M yrs 550M B.C. ? "16" ?
Hunters 224K yrs 2000K B.C. 7.3 8.9 ?
Farmers 909 yrs 4856 B.C. 7.9 7.6 2.4
Industry 6.3 yrs 2020 A.D. 7.2 >9.2 0.094
The model identifies the past economy accelerators as.:
- neural networks, evolving into doubling brain size each 30-ish megayears (hinting that human level of intelligence is an inevitability: +/-30 millions of year around the Now, by the virtue of the good old 'coin-toss' Darwinian algorithm alone.)
- human as the top-of-the-foodchains predator since around 2 000 000 BC. (maybe the human mastering of the Fire and the Blade to blame), compressing the doubling time with over two orders of magnitude down to a quarter of a million of years.
- Food production, ecosystem manipulation (or rather the collimation of farming, horse domestication and writing as accelerator components), leading to less than 40 human generations per economy doubling.
- All we know as division of labor, specialization, systematized Sci-Tech... industry - the centralized ways for production and control of knowledge leading to another hundreds-fold compression down to mere ~decade of economy doubling time.
Recommended: digest each Hanson (economy accelerator drive or) Engine with the Bob Hettinga's 'ensime' :
My observation about networks in general is a rather obvious one when you think about it: our social structures map to our communication structures. As intuitive as it is to understand, this observation provides great insight into where the technology of computer assisted communication will take us in the years ahead.
Connectivity specs as indicator and drive.
Now, when we leave the past and use these models to gaze into the future, the really interesting stuff comes out.
Aside from giving explanation to the, detected by Brad DeLong in his also monumental paper , overall trajectory of the economy, the nucleus of meaning in the Rob Hanson's paper is:
Typically, the economy is dominated by one particular mode of economic growth, which produces a constant growth rate. While there are often economic processes which grow exponentially at a rate much faster than that of the economy as a whole, such processes almost always slow down as they become limited by the size of the total economy. Very rarely, however, a faster process reforms the economy so fundamentally that overall economic growth rates accelerate to track this new process. The economy might then be thought of as composed of an old sector and a new sector, a new sector which continues to grow at its same speed even when it comes to dominate the economy.
Visualize: a Petri dish and sugar being expanded in size and quantity by the accelerating growth of the bacterial culture in it.
Hanson actually predicted nearly quarter of century ago, ... something that is relentlessly coming.
In the CES model (which this author prefers) if the next number of doubles of DT were the same as one of the last three DT doubles, the next doubling time would be ... 1.3, 2.1, or 2.3 weeks. This suggests a remarkably precise estimate of an amazingly fast growth rate. ... it seems hard to escape the conclusion that the world economy will likely see a very dramatic change within the next century, to a new economic growth mode with a doubling time perhaps as short as two weeks.
An economy accelerator avalanche is roaring down the slope of time towards us.
A brand new Hanson Engine is about to leave the assembly line.
Tau, is that you?
FOOTNOTE: To wrap up the above statements in the flesh of the deep thesaurus of content onto which they lie, would conservatively consume hundreds of pages. Even if only briefed. I promise to come back to these subtopic meaning expansions (by referring back to here) with series of posts in the months to come to tie up with the notions of.: economy as a network, network as computer, what exactly it processes and outputs, economy (like the universe or life) being endogenously driven positive feedback loop self-amplifying non-equilibrium entropic combinatorial explosion system, the wealth as economy complexity growth in relation with GDP size and the intimate connection of dollars-joules in energy intensity, physical and economic limits of growth, self-reinforcing predator-pray models, knowledge as synonymous with skill and so forth, economic cycles upon the DeLong curve ... to name a few. Readers questions and comments will of course help a lot with the subtopics prioritization, and will boost (incl. mine) understanding. Thank you in advance!
NOTE: I currently have the pleasure and honor to be part of the Tau Team, but this post contains ONLY my personal views.
Ohad Asor the lead developer and founder of Tauchain releases first new blog post in over a year. By Dana Edwards. Posted on Steemit. December 30, 2017.
The new blog post titled "The New Tau" is available for everyone to read. The blog post speaks on the critical topic of collaborative decision making. This is a topic which I myself have been interested in and Ohad's solution is different from the usual solution. In my own thinking I was considering a solution based on collaborative filtering but I realized this would never scale. I then considered a solution based upon using IA (intelligence amplification) by way of personal preference agents and this does scale but requires that the agents have a lot of data to truly know each user and their preferences. The solution Ohad Asor comes up with attempts to solve many of the same problems but his solution scales without seeming to require collaborative filtering or any kind of voting as we traditionally think about it.
Let me list some of the obvious problems with voting which many will recognize from Steem which also relies on collaborative filtering:
Now let's see what Ohad Asor has to say:
In small groups and everyday life we usually don't vote but express our opinions, sometimes discuss them, and the agreement or disagreement or opinions map arises from the situation. But on large communities, like a country, we can only think of everyone having a right to vote to some limited number of proposals. We reach those few proposals using hierarchical (rather decentralized) processes, in the good case, in which everyone has some right to propose but the opinions flow through certain pipes and reach the voting stage almost empty from the vast information gathered in the process. Yet, we don't even dare to imagine an equal right to propose just like an equal right to vote, for everyone, in a way that can actually work. Indeed how can that work, how can a voter go over equally-weighted one million proposals every day?
This in my opinion is very true. In reality we have discussions and at best we seek to broadcast or share our intentions. Intent casting was actually the basis behind how I thought to solve this problem of social choice but I would say intent casting even with my best ideas would not have been good enough because again the typical voter would be uninformed. Without an ability of the typical voter to be either educated continuously which in a complex world may be unrealistic, or for the network itself to somehow keep the voter up to date, this intent casting barely works. It works well for shopping where a shopper knows what they want but does not work so well when a person doesn't actually know what they want and merely knows what they value. Values are the basis for morality, for ethical systems, and this is the area where Ohad's solution really shines.
Tauchain has the potential not only to scale discussions but also morality, because it will have the built in logic to make sure people can be moral without constant contradiction. The truth is, without this aid, the human being cannot actually be moral in decision making in my opinion due to the inability to avoid all sorts of contradictions.
All known methods of discussions so far suffer from very poor scaling. Twice more participants is rarely twice the information gain, and when the group is too big (even few dozens), twice more participants may even reduce the overall gain into half and below, not just to not improve it times two.
This is the conclusion that Ohad and myself reached separately but it still holds true. We require the aid of machines in order to scale collaborative decision making. This in my opinion is one of the major difference makers philosophically speaking between the intended design and function of Tauchain vs every other crypto platform in development. This also in my opinion is going to be the difference maker for the community which Tauchain as a technology will serve because it will enable the machines and humans to aid each other for mutual benefit or symbiosis.
The blog post by Ohad Asor brings forward a very important discussion which has many different angles to it. The angle I focused on with regard to the social choice dilemma is the problem of how do we scale morality. In my opinion if we can scale morality in a decentralized, open source, truly significant manner, then nothing stands in the way of absolute legitimacy, mainstream adoption, and with it a very high yet fairly priced token. The utility value of scaling morality in my opinion is higher than just about anything else we can accomplish with crypto tech and AI. If the morality is better, then the design of future platforms will be greatly improved in terms of how the users are treated, and this in itself could at least in my opinion help solve the debate about whether AI can remain beneficial over a long period of time. I think if we can scale morality in a decentralized way, it will make it easier to design and spread beneficial AI. Crypto-effective alturism could become a new thing if we can solve the deeper more philosophical problems.
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Suggested readings to better understand the Tau ecosystem, Tau Meta Language, Tau-Chain and Agoras, and collaborate in the development of the project.
Lecturas sugeridas para entender mejor el ecosistema Tau, Tau Meta Lenguaje, Tau-Chain y Agoras, y colaborar en el desarrollo del proyecto.