A less understood feature of Tauchain is the feature called "program synthesis" in academic literature. This is a feature that as far as I know no one else in the crypto community is investigating. This feature of program synthesis when combined with the knowledge based AI discussed in my previous posts(1,2), would allow Tauchain to leverage the trend of big data. As the collective knowledge base of Tauchain expands, the capability of this automated programmer will improve. The automatic programmer will reason over an increasing collective knowledge base to allow Tauchain to in a sense "program itself". Smart contract developers will gain piece of mind knowing that their smart contracts are formally verified (for correctness) and users will be able to contribute to the development by joining in as a group to accurately describe the behavior of the code.Haz clic aquí para editar.
The impact of program synthesis and knowledge based AI on the smart contract development community.
Let's discuss what this means for smart contract developer. A smart contract developer today has to deal with creating a white paper, then a formal specification, then do the programming and formal verification themselves. This is very difficult for humans to do and as a result very few people are able to write secure smart contracts yet almost everyone can come up with some interesting idea for a smart contract. Program synthesis will allow individuals or a group of people to specify in a simple yet controlled natural language such as a simple English what they want (this creates the formal specification) and from this description of what they want the automatic programmer will handle the rest. The code will in a sense be written automatically by the AI by reasoning over a knowledge base which could include the knowledge necessary to produce the code for that smart contract.
AI learns to write its own code by stealing from other programs?
In summary, each participant in Tauchain will be able to speak to their "automated programmer" in a language they are comfortable with. They'll describe as accurately as they can the functioning and behavior of the program or smart contract. The automated programmer will then reason over a very large knowledge base and if it is smart enough it will automatically generate the code for the smart contract from their description. The participant will then either be satisfied with what was generated or not satisfied and update their description so as to trigger the process until they are satisfied. This is yet another breakthrough feature which Tauchain may be able to offer to the crypto-community in addition to potentially solving the knowledge acquisition bottleneck problem.
What is the Knowledge Acquisition Bottleneck problem? By Dana Edwards. Posted on Steemit. March 29, 2017.
Now that we know what knowledge representation is, and what knowledge bases are, and how the knowledge base is relied upon in a knowledge based system of artificial intelligence (KR+KB+Inference engine), we can move on to discussing one of the open problems.
The Knowledge Acquisition Bottleneck problem.
Many people already know about the familiar Byzantines generals problem in computer science. We also know how the Nakamoto consensus in Bitcoin provided a novel example of a solution. The Knowledge Acquisition Bottleneck problem is one of the problems plaguing AI and is what limits or seems to be a limit on the strength of artificial intelligence. One of the main problems in artificial intelligence is that knowledge formation typically requires domain experts who can contribute to the knowledge base. The Cyc project attempted to solve the problem of scaling up the knowledge base but is suffering from the bottleneck. The bottleneck can be summarized below [taken from Wagner, 2006]:
The paper from which this summary was pulled "Breaking the Knowledge Acquisition Bottleneck Through Conversational Knowledge Management" also offers a solution called collaborative conversational knowledge management. This is the same solution which Tauchain will attempt to utilize in a more sophisticated way. Tauchain will allow for collaborative theory formation. In the paper this quote explains a key concept:
We see this concept in how Wikipedia works to manage knowledge. We know Wikipedia is indeed not without flaws but it does manage knowledge. In their conclusion we see this quote:
Tauchain by design will be collaborative and allow for collaborative theory formation. This would mean anyone will be able to contribute to the knowledge base with relative ease. In addition, it will have knowledge management properties built in, and if the knowledge acquisition bottleneck problem can be solved then it will have a huge impact. For one, the problems which prevent knowledge based AI from scaling could be resolved if this bottleneck is removed.
DARPA has attempted to solve the Knowledge Acquisition Bottleneck problem utilizing high performance knowledge bases (HPKBs)and Rapid Knowledge Formation yet failed. Cyc has attempted to solve the same problem and has failed. The semantic web has yet to take off because this problem stands in the way. Will Tauchain succeed where these other attempts have failed? I think it is a strong possibility which is why I'm excited about the implications should Tauchain successfully be built.
Lenat, D. B., Prakash, M., & Shepherd, M. (1985). CYC: Using common sense knowledge to overcome brittleness and knowledge acquisition bottlenecks. AI magazine, 6(4), 65.
Wagner, C. (2006). Breaking the Knowledge Acquisition Bottleneck Through Conversational Knowledge Management. Information Resources Management Journal, 19(1), 70-83.
Web 1. https://www.quora.com/What-is-knowledge-acquisition-bottleneck
Web 2. http://www.igi-global.com/dictionary/knowledge-acquisition-bottleneck/49991
Web 3: http://www.tauchain.org
Web 4: https://steemit.com/tauchain/@dana-edwards/how-to-become-a-stakeholder-in-agoras-and-indirectly-tauchain
Fuente / Source: Original post written by Dana Edwards. Published on Steemit: What is the Knowledge Acquisition Bottleneck problem?
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Suggested readings to better understand the Tau ecosystem, Tau Meta Language, Tau-Chain and Agoras, and collaborate in the development of the project.
Lecturas sugeridas para entender mejor el ecosistema Tau, Tau Meta Lenguaje, Tau-Chain y Agoras, y colaborar en el desarrollo del proyecto.