Using Controlled English as a Knowledge Representation language. By Dana Edwards. Posted on Steemit. April 4, 2017.
Previously I mentioned "controlled English" when discussing the concept of knowledge representation. This post will go into some detail about what controlled English is. In specific I will discuss Kuhn's doctoral dissertation and Attempto Controlled English (ACE).
Computational linguistics is an interdisciplinary field concerned with the statistical or rule-based modeling of natural language from a computational perspective.
There are many different controlled natural languages
First I would like to discuss the fact that controlled English is not the only controlled nature language and Attempto Controlled English is only one particular controlled English. For example 1 there is RuleSpeak which is a controlled natural language for business rules. Another example2 is Quelo Controlled English which is a controlled English for querying, where you would say statements such as: "I am looking for something, it should be located in a city, the city should produce a new car, the new car should be equipped with a diesel engine". In addition to these examples we also have Google which uses Voice Actions where you can speak into your android phone and say something like: "Create a calendar event: Dinner in San Francisco, Saturday at 7:00PM". All of these are examples of controlled natural languages and reveal just how powerful this could be for users and developers.
What is Attempto Controlled English (ACE)?
Attempto Controlled English also known as ACE is a specific controlled natural language. It is likely that at some point in the early stages of development this controlled natural language will be implemented on Tauchain. ACE is like English but relies on following certain rules with a restricted vocabulary.
Rule subject + verb + complements + adjuncts
All simple ACE sentences have the above structure of subject + verb + complements + adjuncts. An example would be the following sentences below:
A customer waits.
To construct sentences without a verb you can rely on:
there is + noun phrase
There is a customer.
And you can add detail with:
A trusted customer inserts two valid cards.
And you can use variables:
How does Attempto Controlled English help with Knowledge Representation?
In specific because anyone who speaks English can quickly learn Attempto Controlled English it will mean anyone will be able to contribute to the process of knowledge representation. Contributing to a knowledge base becomes very easy when you can simply describe in plain English (with restrictions) exactly the knowledge you want to represent. A semantic Wiki can be built out of this process rather easily.
How does Attempto Controlled English relate to Tauchain?
Tauchain requires input from the users to determine a formal specification. Attempto Controlled English is simple enough that anyone can describe a formal specification. For example sentences like:
Every customer inserts a card.
As you see above, we are dealing with types. Human is a type. Human is divided at a minimum between male and female subtypes.
And ACEWiki gives an example of what a formal specification could look like in Tauchain. The example being country, where the knowledge in this case is the concept of a country. Then we describe a country by filling in the Wiki collaboratively, where we know first of all that every country is an area, but then collaboratively we fill in the list of current persons who govern a country. Through this method we add to the knowledge base using the knowledge representation language ACE, and in the case of Tauchain we would be adding to potentially a formal specification which eventually is synthesized (program synthesis) by the Tauchain automatic programmer.
To learn more about Attempto Controlled English Wiki watch the video lecture
Kuhn, T. (2009). Controlled English for knowledge representation (Doctoral dissertation, University of Zurich).
Kuhn, T. (2014). A survey and classification of controlled natural languages. Computational Linguistics, 40(1), 121-170.
Kuhn, T. (2009). How controlled English can improve semantic wikis. arXiv preprint arXiv:0907.1245.
Ranta, A., Enache, R., & Détrez, G. (2010, September). Controlled language for everyday use: the molto phrasebook. In International Workshop on Controlled Natural Language (pp. 115-136). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Ross, Ronald G. 2013. Tabulation of lists in RuleSpeak—using “the following” clause. Business Rules Journal, 14(4):1–16.
White, C., & Schwitter, R. (2009, December). An update on PENG light. In Proceedings of ALTA (Vol. 7, pp. 80-88).
Web 2: http://attempto.ifi.uzh.ch/site/resources/
Fuente / Source: Original post written by Dana Edwards. Published on Steemit: Using Controlled English as a Knowledge Representation language. April 4, 2017.
The value of Knowledge Representation and the Decentralized Knowledge Base for Artificial Intelligence (expert systems). By Dana Edwards. Posted on Steemit. March 27, 2017.
This article contains an explanation of two core concepts for creating decentralized artificial intelligence and also discusses some projects which are attempting to bring these concepts into practical reality. The first of these concepts is called knowledge representation. The second of these concepts is called a knowledge base. Human beings contribute to a knowledge base using a knowledge representation language. Reasoning over this knowledge base is possible and artificial intelligence utilizing this knowledge base is also possible.
Knowledge representation defined by it's roles.
To define knowledge representation we must list the five roles of knowledge representation which can reveal what it does.
1. Knowledge representation is a surrogate
2. Knowledge representation is a set of ontological commitments
3. Knowledge representation is a fragmentary theory of intelligent reasoning
4. Knowledge representation is a medium for efficient computation
Part 1: Knowledge Representation is a Surrogate
By surrogate we means it is substituting or acting in place of something. So if knowledge representation is a surrogate then it must be representing some original. There is of course an issue that the surrogate must be a completely accurate representation but if we want a completely accurate representation of an object then it can only come from the object itself. In this case all other representations are inaccurate as they inevitably contain simplifying assumptions and possibly artifacts. To put this into a context, if you make a copy of an audio recording, for every copy you make it going to contain slightly more artifacts. This similarly also happens when dealing with information sent through a wire, where if not properly amplified there eventually will be artifects that come from copying a transmission.
"Two important consequences follow from the inevitability of imperfect surrogates. One consequence is that in describing the natural world, we must inevitably lie, by omission at least. At a minimum we must omit some of the effectively limitless complexity of the natural world; our descriptions may in addition introduce artifacts not present in the world.
Part 2: Knowledge Representation is a Set of Ontological Commitments.
"If, as we have argued, all representations are imperfect approximations to reality, each approximation attending to some things and ignoring others, then in selecting any representation we are in the very same act unavoidably making a set of decisions about how and what to see in the world. That is, selecting a representation means making a set of ontological commitments. (2) The commitments are in effect a strong pair of glasses that determine what we can see, bringing some part of the world into sharp focus, at the expense of blurring other parts."
In this case because our commitments are made then our representation is selected by making a set of ontological commitments. An ontological commitment is a framework for how we will view the world, such as viewing the world through logic. If we choose to view the world through logic, through rule-based systems then all of our knowledge about the world is also within that framework. We choose our representation technology and commit to a particular view of the world.
Part 3: Knowledge Representation is a Fragmentary Theory of Intelligent Reasoning.
Mathmaetical logic seems to provide a basis for some of intelligent reasoning but it is also recognized to be derived from the five fields which include of course mathematical logic, but also psychology, biology, statistics, and economics. If we go with mathematical logic then we have deductive and inductive reasoning approaches. Deductive reasoning according to some is the basis behind. If we want to explore an example of reasoning we can take the Socrates example,
Statement A: True? Y/N?
"All men are mortal"
Statement B: True? Y/N?
"Socrates is a man"
Satement C: True? Y/N?
"Socrates is a mortal"
If A is true, and B is also true, then C must be true. This is an example of basic logical reasoning which can easily be resolved using symbol manipulation and knowledge representation. The symbol at play in this example would be implication.
Part 4: Knowledge Representation is a Medium for Efficient Computation.
If we think of computational efficiency, and think of all forms of computation whether mechanical or natural in the sense of the sort of computation done by a biological entity, then we may think of knowledge representation as a medium for that computation efficiency. Currently we think of money as a medium of exchange, and if we think of the human brain as a type of computer which does human computation, then we may think of knowledge representation.
While the issue of efficient use of representations has been addressed by representation designers, in the larger sense the field appears to have been historically ambivalent in its reaction. Early recognition of the notion of heuristic adequacy  demonstrates that early on researchers appreciated the significance of the computational properties of a representation, but the tone of much subsequent work in logic (e.g., ) suggested that epistemology (knowledge content) alone mattered, and defined computational efficiency out of the agenda. Epistemology does of course matter, and it may be useful to study it without the potentially distracting concerns about speed. But eventually we must compute with our representations, hence efficiency must be part of the agenda. The pendulum later swung sharply over, to what we might call the computational imperative view. Some work in this vein (e.g., ) offered representation languages whose design was strongly driven by the desire to provide not only efficiency, but guaranteed efficiency. The result appears to be a language of significant speed but restricted expressive power .
While I will admit the above paragraph may be a bit cryptic, shows that there is a view that better representation of knowledge leads to computational efficiency.
Part 5: Knowledge Representation is a Medium of Human Expression.
Of course knowledge representation is part of how we communicate with each other or with machines. Human beings use natural language to convey knowledge and this natural language can include the use of vocabularies of words with agreed upon meanings. This vocabulary of words may be found in various dictionaries including the urban dictionary and we rely on these dictionaries as a sort of knowledge base.
What is a decentralized Knowledge Base?
To understand what a decentralized knowledge base is we must first describe what a knowledge base is. A knowledge base stores knowledge representations which are described in the above examples. This knowledge base in more simple terms could be thought of as representing the facts about the world in the form of structured and or unstructured information which can be utilized by a computer system. An artificial intelligence can utilize a knowledge base to solve problems and typically this particular kind of artificial intelligence is called an expert system. The artificial intelligence in the most simple form will just reason on this knowledge base through an inference engine and through this it can do the sort of computations which are of great utility to problem solvers.
When we think of Wikipedia we are thinking about an encyclopedia which the whole world can contribute to. When we think about the problems with Wikipedia we can quickly see that one of the problems is the fact that it's centralized. We also have the problem that the knowledge that is stored on Wikipedia is not stored in a way which machines can make use of it and this means even if Wikipedia can be useful for humans to look up facts it is not in the current form able to act effectively as a decentralized knowledge base. DBPedia is an attempt to bring Wikipedia into a form which machines can make use of but it still is centralized which means a DDOS or similar attack can censor it.
Decentralized knowledge is important for the world and a decentralized knowledge base is critical for the development of a decentralized AI. If we are speaking about an expert system then the knowledge base would have to be as large as possible which means we may need to give the incentive for human beings to contribute and share their knowledge with this decentralized knowledge base. We also would have to provide a knowledge representation language so that human beings can share their knowledge in the appropriate way for it to enter into the knowledge base to be used by potential AI.
Knowledge representation is a necessary component for the vast majority of attempts at a truly decentralized AI. If we are going to deal with any AI then we must have a way for human beings to convey knowledge to the machines in a way which both the human beings and machines can understand it. The use of a knowledge representation language makes it possible for a human being to contribute to a knowledge base and this ultimately allows for machines to make use of it's inference engine capabilities to reason from this knowledge base. In the case of a decentralized knowledge base then the barrier of entry is low or non-existent and any human being or perhaps any living being or even robots can contribute to this shared resource yet at the same time both humans and machines can gain utility from this shared resource. An artificial intelligence which functions similar to an expert system can make use of an extremely large knowledge base to solve complex problems and a decentralized knowledge base combined with open and decentralized access to this artificial intelligence can benefit humanity and life on earth in general if used appropriately.
Discussion of example projects.
One of the well known attempts to do something like this is Tauchain which will have both a knowledge representation system and a decentralized knowledge base. In the case of Tau there will be a special simple knowledge representation language under development which resembles simplified controlled English. This knowledge representation language will allow anyone to contribute to the collective knowledge base. Tauchain eventually will have a decentralized knowledge base over the course of it's evolution from the first alpha.
Unfortunately upon reading the Lunyr whitepaper and following their public materials I fail to see how they will pull off what they are promising. I do not think the current Ethereum can handle concurrency which probably would be necessary for doing AI. I also don't see how Ethereum would be able to do it securely with the current design although I remain optimistic about Casper. The lack of code on Github, the lack of references to their research, does not allow me to completely analyze their approach. I can see based on the fact that they are talking about a decentralized knowledge base that their approach will require more than the magic of the market combined with pretty marketing. They will require a knowledge representation language, they will require a true decentralized knowledge base built into IPFS. This true decentralized knowledge base will have to scale with IPFS and through this maybe they can achieve something but without a clear plan of action I would have to say that today I'm not confident in their approach or in Ethereum's ability to handle doing it efficiently.
Fuente / Source: Original post written by Dana Edwards. Published on Steemit: The value of Knowledge Representation and the Decentralized Knowledge Base for Artificial Intelligence (expert systems).
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