If Money = Memory, if Society = a Super Computer, if Computation is in Physical Systems, what is a Decentralized Operating System? By Dana Edwards. Posted on Steemit. October 24, 2018.
These concepts are not often discussed so let's have the discussion from the beginning. The first concept to think about is pancomputationalism or put another way the ubiquitous computers which exist everywhere in our environment. We for example can look at physical systems living and non living and see computations taking place all around us. If you look at rocks and trees you can see memory storage. If you look at DNA you can see code and if you look at viruses you can see microscopic programmers adding new codes to DNA. Even when we look at the weather such as a hurricane it is computing.
If you look at nature you see algorithms. You will see learners (yes the same as in AI), also in nature. The process is basically the same for all learning. Consider that everything which is physical is also digital. Consider that the universe is merely information patterns.
If we look at society we can also think of society as a computer. What does society compute though? One way people talk about a society is as a complex adaptive system, but this is also how people might talk about the human body. The human body computes with the purpose of maintaining homeostasis, to persist through time and reproduce copies of itself over time. The human brain computes to promote the survival of the human body. Just as viruses pass on codes to our DNA, the human brain is infected with mind viruses which are called memes. Memes are pieces of information which can alter physically how the brain is working.
The mind isn't limited to the brain. The mind is all the resources the brain can leverage to compute. In other words a person has a brain to compute with but when language was invented this allowed a person to compute not just using their own brain but using the environment itself. To draw on a cave is to use the cave to enhance the memory of the brain. To use mathematics is to use language to enhance the ability of the brain to compute by relying on external storage and symbol manipulation. To use a computer with a programming language is essentially to use mathematics only instead of writing on the cave wall we are writing in 1s and 0s. The mind exists to augment the brain in a constant feedback loop where the brain relies on the mind to improve itself and adapt. If there were no external reality the brain would have no way to evolve itself and improve.
A society in the strictly human sense of the word is the aggregation of minds. This can be at minimum all the human minds in that society. As technology improves the mind capacity increases because each human can remember more, can access more computation resources, can in essence use technology to continuously improve their mind and then leverage the improved mind to improve their brain. The Internet is the pinnacle of this kind of progress but it's obviously not good enough. While the Internet allows for the creation of a global mind by connecting people, things, and minds, it does nothing to actually improve the feedback loop between the mind and the brain, nor does it really offer what could be offered.
Bitcoin came into the picture and perhaps we can think of it as a better memory. A decentralized memory where essentially you can have money. The problem is that money is a very narrow application. It is the start, just as to learn to write on the cave wall was a start, but it's not ambitious enough in my opinion.
Humans in the current blockchain or crypto community do not have many ways where human computation can be exchanged. Human computation is just as valuable as non biological machine computation because there are some kinds of computations which humans can do quite easily which non biological machines still cannot do as well. Translation for example is something non biological machines have a difficult time with but human beings can do well. This means a market will be able to form where humans can sell their computation to translate stuff. If we look at Amazon Mechanical Turk we can see many tasks which humans can do which computer AI cannot yet do, such as labeling and classifying stuff. In order for things to go to the next level we will need markets which allow humans to contribute human computer and or human knowledge in exchange for crypto tokens.
The concept of a decentralized operating system is interesting. First if there are a such thing as social computations (such as collaborative filtering, subjective ranking, waze, etc) then what about the new paradigm of social dispersed computing?
The question becomes what do we want to do with this computing power? Will we use it to extend life? Will we use it to spread life into the cosmos? Will we use it to become wise? To become moral? To become rational? If we want to focus on these kinds of concerns then we definitely need something more than Bitcoin, Ethereum, or even EOS. While EOS does seem to be pursuing the strategy of a decentralized operating system which seems to be the correct course, it does not get everything right.
One problem is as I mentioned before the importance of the feedback loops between minds and brains. The reason I always communicate on the concept of external mind or extended mind is based on that fact that it is the mind which creates the immune system to protect the brain from harmful memes. The brain keeps the body alive. The brain is not really capable of rationality, or morality, or logic, and relies on the mind to achieve this. The mind is essentially all the computation resources that the brain can leverage.
EOS has the problem in the sense that it doesn't seem to improve the user. The user can connect, can join, can earn or sell, can participate, but unless the user can become wiser, more rational, more moral, then EOS has limits. EOS does have Everpedia which is quite interesting but again there are still problems. What can EOS do to improve people in society and thus improve society, if society is a computer and is in need of being upgraded?
Well if society is a computer first what does society compute? What should it compute? I don't even know how to answer those questions. I could suggest that if computation is a commodity along with data then whichever decentralized operating systems that do compete and exist will compete for these commodities. The total brain power of a society is just as important as the amount of connectivity. And the mind of the society is the most important part of a society because it is what can allow the society to become better over time, allow the people in the society to thrive, allow the life forms to continue to evolve avoid extinction.
A decentralized operating system on a technical level would have a kernel or something similar to it. This is the resource management part. For example Aragon promises to offer a decentralized OS and it too mentions having a kernel. A true decentralized operating system has to go further and requires autonomous agents. Autonomous agents which can act on behalf of their owners are philosophically speaking the extended mind. But the resources of a society is still finite, has to be managed, and so a kernel would provide for an ability to allow for resource management.
The total computation ability of a society is likely a massive amount of resources. A lot more than just to connect a bunch of CPUs together. Every member of the society which can compute could participate in a computation market. Of course as we are beginning to see now, the regulators seem concerned about certain kinds of social computations such as prediction markets. So it is unknown how truly decentralized operating systems would be handled but my guess is that if designed right then they could be pro-social, be capable of producing augmented morality by leveraging mass computation, and also by leveraging human computation be able to be compliant. To be compliant is simply to understand the local laws but these can be programmed into the autonomous agents if people think it is necessary.
What is more important is that if a law is clearly bad, and people have enhanced minds, then it will be very clear why the law is bad. This clarity will help people to dispute and seek to change bad laws through the appropriate channels. If there is more wisdom, due to insights from big data, from data scientists, etc, then there can be proposals for law changes which are much wiser and more intelligent. This is something specifically that people in the Tauchain community have realized (that technology can be used to improve policy making).
A lot is still unknown so these writings do not provide clear answers. Consider this just a stream of consciousness about concepts I am deeply contemplating. This is also a way to interpret different technologies.
This topic is loaded in the barrel since - as I see in my draft records - April 2018. It is my free assotiations on the major topic of the aka ''tragedy of the commons''  refracted through the prism of things which I had to pass through with Tau  in mind. In the months it replicated itself into numerous subtopics and threatens to grow in several general theories  so I decided to better unleash it in the wild and to handle it with your help and if necessary to tame and domesticate it and its progeny by the coming power of Tau.
The problem of the 'tragedy of the commons' as a symptom of the more general theme of ownership .
I think I kinda nailed it. It seems this approach brings serious inference power, i.e. via it most of what we know can be derived. Of course it lacks mathematical / logical rigor, but still even on such haiku expression level seems to work.
Yes, there is such a word. In linguistics .
Per se, ''clusivity'' is modulus  of inclusion  and/or exclusion .
Absolute value in maths denotes 'distance' from zero, regardless of direction, which seems to translate well for depicting the spectrum between 'included' and 'excluded', if we imagine that excluded=-1 as the opposite of included=1, and zero measures state of equal clusion. The other, more intuitive and easier to grasp, way would be of the fuzzy logic  of zero to one fractional values, where zero is no clusivity, and one is full clusivity. Lets say we take one of the possible 'directions' and 0= complete exclusion, 1=complete inclusion ... multi-values in between.
Of course due to purely physical reasons 0 and 1 are asymptotic values - ever to approach, never to reach. And of course due to purely physical, finitist  reasons the clusivity fuzzy spectrum is quantized , not smoothly continuous .
Attending etymology usually pays off, because of two reasons:
Thus, we can visualize all languages as a single language, a continuum with mascons  of commonality of indexing-meaning pairs. Like a strange form of semantic entanglement  - to be inevitably hacked someday open and to give birth to endless valuable technologies...
What does this up to now have in common with Commons, Ownership and Tau?
Interestingly, the etymology of 'include'  automatically leads to its privatization-publicization functionality.
It is cognate with both.:
The private/public ''divide'' as key/access driven relation.
Do we ''have the keys''? Or ''are we'' the keys (given non-computerized 'face-control' type of access cases)?
NO. For any entity and for every access, the keys are not the entity or are not property of it.
Key is OUTPUT by us. Fed as INPUT into other systems, so they to perform.
Society can be imaged as a network of partially-black boxes  , where free will is function of the box certainty of autoreflection and trust is function of the uncertanty of other boxes behavior prediction ...
We do not know and in most cases can not know what's going on inside other peoples or organizations or other artifacts inner workings, but we know that by inserting Key we can make them to perform certain expected predicted action.
The boxes are said to be partially-black for the non-black part denoting the zone of predictability - i.e. ''if I input this into that black-box I know it will return to me this and that specifically''...
Key, be it biometrics, piece of shaped metal, digital string of bits ... a reason which causes, a input which brings the outcome of access to...
Important side note is that in the case of key-pair philosophy it is NOT two keys - public & private, but rather a (public) padlock  and THE (private) key , so everybody can lock it but only the key-owner can unlock it / access it.
You maybe have noticed one of my many times repeated slogans :
LAW IS BETWEEN, CODE IS WITHIN
, coming to delineate the map of Trust - i.e. where force is needed ( ''I trust you only as much as I can make you to'') and the self-enforcing systems of blockchain and god knows what else possible systems.
The whole picture is pretty insightful in both the blockchain and the trust (e.g. force)  context, when we realize that it is not so much about de jure, but purely de facto situation. Even when minding the Law. For, private-public being function of the performance and efficiency of the protocol. Incl. the key-making ones. Incl. the key-breaking ones.
On The Law and the related trust=enforcement relations to code and protocols, I'll go some other time in detail (actually lots of times because it seems the bunch of concepts here have lots of fruitful logical consequences), but the inevitable conclusion seems to be that it is in general a Clusivity thing even in the Legal case. For it is matter of accessing the output of compulsory legal action by inputting a ... key.
The recent EU intellectual law directive  is alphabetical example of the Fiat  approach of the external enforcement (as opposed to the cryptographic 'trustless' one). The Fiat way of enforcing ownership rights is also a Clusivity system. The subjects victims of property rights breach ACCESSES the authorities with their ID information, evidence, procedural codes and as output they have to receive enforcement actions vs the delinquents . The cost of trust  this way might be staggering and it is apparent that such a system may easily get clogged and to implosively unscale , .
Tau is mostly about knowledge economy. Economy without ownership ... is very hard, if not impossible to imagine. Like , where there ain't between anymore but everything is within, but even all white boxes system is prone to failures . Especially when we go past the veil of the ideological cliche definitions and take ''to own'' = ''to access'' in the purely factual, physical sense of the word.
In this sense each and every economy is a Clusivity management system.
Tau promises the ultimate Clusivity management.
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tragedy_of_the_commons
 - http://www.idni.org/
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irony
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ownership
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clusivity
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Absolute_value
 - https://www.etymonline.com/word/inclusion
 - https://www.etymonline.com/word/exclusion
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuzzy_logic
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finitism
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discrete
 - https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/continuous
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_line
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memory_(disambiguation)
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morphism
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_concentration_(astronomy)
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_entanglement
 - https://www.etymonline.com/word/include
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_box
 - https://security.stackexchange.com/questions/87247/why-is-a-public-key-called-a-key-isnt-it-a-lock
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public-key_cryptography
 - http://www.behest.io/
 - https://steemit.com/tauchain/@karov/tauchain-and-the-cost-of-trust
 - https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/jun/20/eu-votes-for-copyright-law-that-would-make-internet-a-tool-for-control
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiat_money
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delict
 - https://steemit.com/tauchain/@karov/tauchain-trumps-procrustics
 - https://steemit.com/tauchain/@karov/scaling-is-layering
 - https://steemit.com/tauchain/@karov/tauchain-transcaling
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borg
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cancer
 - The marvelous picture above is quoted from : https://www.deviantart.com/lora-zombie/art/LORA-ZOMBIE-THREADLESS-351467642
How Tauchain and the Exocortex can give anyone a conscience and make anyone more law abiding. By Dana Edwards. Posted on Steemit. September 2, 2018.
First "anyone" is not literal. By anyone I mean anyone with a reasonable level of intelligence who is willing to take the advice generated by the network. The network would include human beings and machines. The network would learn and be more properly defined as a complex adaptive system. Tauchain would enable the emergence of this network. This post is about how the network which can emerge from Tauchain. It is also about how people who intend to be as moral as possible whilst also complying with the law as much as possible might leverage the network. This post assumes that the human brain has a finite memory and comprehension capacity. This post assumes that every human being can benefit from enhancing these naturally limited capacities in areas of legal comprehension and risk literacy (under the assumption that most or perhaps none of us know every law on the books but need to comply with the laws most likely to be aggressively enforced).
The Personal Moral Assistant
PMA is a concept I've been thinking about for years now. The idea that we can augment our ability to be moral persons. A PMA is a personal moral assistant and in an ideal world every person born would have one. This would be an interface similar to what we see with Cortana or Siri where you can ask any question pertaining to whether a particular action is right or wrong. This PMA would solve the problem using the same priorities that you would and so you would get a definite right or wrong result.
A Personal Moral Assistant is just one primary use case. But these personal assistants over Tauchain could also include for instance a Personal Compliance Assistant. This is essentially another bot but instead of dealing with moral problems this bot would handle compliance. If you're trying to accomplish a goal this bot would make sure that you do so following all the known laws as your exocortex currently understands it. This would enable people to avoid legal pitfalls whilst chasing opportunities.
In order to go from poor to rich in this world requires taking risks. There is no way around risk taking if you want to get ahead. Risk literacy is essential and very few people who are poor have risk literacy. The PMA might be able to tell a person whether a certain choice aligns with their current values. The PCA might tell a person whether a certain choice complies with the laws. What about opportunities? An opportunity web crawler agent could theoretically search across the entire Internet to find opportunities which match your chosen risk profile.
What are we doing today?
Today we have to make choices often in trial and error. If we aren't lucky enough to have mentors or people who can guide us then the only way to learn is to make the common mistakes. When we deal with moral problems today we often rely on holy scripture interpreted by other human beings who are just as flawed as we are. We simply don't have a bot which could interpret the scripture in a completely logical way. In other words we don't have the digital representation of the mind of our spiritual guides.
We also have a situation where some of us can afford to comply with every law and take the lowest risk approach while others simply don't have the resources available to pay the expensive legal fees. Some people get better legal advice than other people as well. What if we could get at least some level of legal assistance from our intelligent assistant? What if this intelligent assistant can even ask human beings who have legal knowledge to help?
And finally what if we could figure out which risks are worth taking and which are not worth taking? It's one thing to find opportunities but another to be able to assess them. People get scammed because at the end of the day our emotions influence our ability to do proper assessment of opportunities. I'm human and it even happens to me from time to time. What if we could avoid this by using the capabilities of Tauchain to analyze massive amounts of information for us which our brains could never handle?
Opportunity Crawler Bot
I ask a simple hypothetical question: what if you could have set a bot to search the Internet for opportunities that resemble Bitcoin in 2008? What if this bot would be activated and search for an indefinite period of time on an undetermined yet expanding number of networks? If you define "Bitcoin in 2008" in a way which the bot can make sense of then it could search for anything which meets that criteria. We have this technology now but it's extremely primitive. On Google you can set up alerts for certain things but what if you could go beyond mere alerts and look for code on Github, and certain individuals involved with it, and certain growth patterns?
A way to think about these bots / intelligent assistants
One way to think about these intelligent assistants is as part of your extended mind. These bots essentially help you to think better and communicate better. It's still you and what they do on your behalf is essentially as if you did it. So the total collection of all of these agents which are under your control represent your complete exocortex. It will take great responsibility and wisdom to use these abilities in a way which is perceived by the world as ethical, moral, legal, etc. It is for these reasons that I initiate a discussion on how each of you would like to use such technology if it did exist or such bots or how you would think about them?
It's Thursday and I'm back, guys.
It's been long time, but here I'm again :)
This post theme was getting ripe in my head for long time. Something like since 2014.
Recently I got some data to put together the stepping stones for turning my mere suspicion into more of a grounded conclusion.
The problem was that it was also growing in width and depth with time, so here you are a momentary snapshot or sketch-map of it, which I intend to elaborate further on.
I'll start with shooting two slogan-missiles which constitute super-compression of lotsa research and which will be revisited soon in separate series of articles.
Trust is Force
''you trust 'em only as much as you can make 'em to...''
Money is Mnemonics
yes, precisely THIS is the core essence and function of ANY monetary system - (even the primordial barter one with its naturally emerging special tokens ,  to mitigate its intrinsic exponential wall  of unscalabiliuty , ) - to account or remember human activity. That is, money is always work to prove work. Basically we need to remember due to impossibility of simultaneity of transactions.
Which I already went over ... and, I beg your pardon. Three, not two slogans. The third one is:
Law is Between, Code is Within
Will explain later what I mean  and how it ties up with the former two. In a nutshell is about the enforceability as essential characteristic of all law and now will just hint that the reason why Force (coercion) is deemed to be fundamentally non-decentralizable is the Pauli exclusion principle  which is kinda ''location conservation law'' .
You already know ,  my taste for epystemological 'archaeology', that's why I think it is better to carry the story on in chronological order.
Back in 2014 I stumbled upon series of extremely astute and deep thought articles , , , ,  on the cost of several well known monetary systems in comparison with Bitcoin, which just has been grown enough to become visible for unaided eye.
I remember I discovered these great articles by the obviously great Hass McCook in the wake of the MtGox ,  boom and bust aftershock, when huge anxiety about the 'wastefullness' of the Bitcoin mining was reigning the public sentiment. (It happens everytime the price nears the production cost).
The search of mine which hit those was driven by the quite legitimate question of:
''If crypto is wasteful, then how much the traditional fiat costs us, god damn it?''
Well, the comparison turned up, as I suspected, not at all in favor neither of the quite recent demetalized fractalized-centralized double-entry book-keeping debts mnemonincs of the banknotes monetary system, nor in favor of the millennia old 'heavy metal' single-entry money where the physical possession of gold/silver denotes your purchase power...
And it occured it was not at all just about costs of mining, refining, casting, ink, printing press, storage, accounting, counterfaiting countermeasures, ... but the bill to pay includes also all the social infrastructure and capital devoted on the making the system to work, and to be kept ticking ...
Essentially all which is know as ... government. All its buildings, all its sallaried humans, all their guns, pens, pensions, courts, judges and bailiffs ... everything.
All that needed in order a common Ledger to be built, maintained, broadcasted and kept. The difference between government and governance is obvious - the former is the means to an end, the later is the end. The former is the machine, the later is the function.
Here is the place to insert three other quick notions which are in the pipeline for revisiting and furnishing with separate articles.:
Firstly, Mnemonics is subject of big evolutionary/development forces just as anything else into the combinatorial explosion which the universe, nature, society is ...
You noticed above the notion of money emergence kinda coinciding with writing? The Sumerian example.
Writing is mnemonics amplifier . Just like the combustion engines are transportation boosters .
The better memory and memory sharing system we have on our disposal the better money we have.
Money is technology .
Secondly, any book-keeping - regardless whether we write by hand on cave wall or papyri, or by blade on a wooden stick, or by most sophisticated laser-quantum methods on most sophisticated multi-dimensional crystals  - is, yeah, a function of writing. We can go even further and state that illiterate verbal folklore - the only thing we got for millions of years - is form of verbal writing onto each other's short-term/long-term memories, just like photography and sound recording is.
The important thing to note here is that in the light of ''Money is Mnemonics'' spell of mine - the accountancy systems do possess cardinality of entries , , .
And it seems that the mega-trend is:
''the more entries handled = the better our money is''
Fiat one - monetary and overall - is double-entry based and relies upon import of trust, blockchain is tripple-entry and trust is built-in. Blockchain is not 'trustless' but is 'autotrophic'  in regards with trust.
The third notion turns us back on track with the main theme of this article. It is that of the mutual entropy .
The Ledger, no matter which tech it uses to be, has as purpose to define how the individual people's acivity has to be limited for the sake of collective cooperation and collaboration.
The Ledger - product of the particular kind of Mnemonics in play - literally SHAPES and MAKES the society.
As kinda Sorites  or Holon  or Mereonomic  ... generator.
NOW, which costs more? Which one is more wasteful of all the known Ledger or Mnemonic or Monetary systems known?
Literally couple of days ago I stumbled upon ''The $29 trillion cost of trust'' from 24 Jul 2018 by Sinclair Davidson, Mikayla Novak and Jason Potts , which made this long time in the making article to come out.
Now I finally have put my eyes on some numbers to juggle with.
The ecumenical  or midgardic  GDP is evaluated on roughly rounded up ~$100t p.a.
There is lots of well grounded criticism  on the ability of the present day fiat financial system to actually manage to encompass and measure it all - but lets take this conditional good round figure for the global GDP.
The total wealth of ~quarter of $Quadrillion (giving total average depriciation / consumption rate of over a third per year).
GDP evaluates the dynamic part. The work.
Almost 1/3rd of all work is devoted to account for or to prove the work!
Visualize the fiat system as a primitive, primordial, predeluvial or perecursor form of PoW .
Funny enough this ~1/3rd global proof-of-work or mnemoic or governance cost strangely coincides with the energy budget of the brain  as fraction of the total energy a human body dissipates to live.
The last two pieces of research argumentation to close the topic are.:
I'm trully impressed by the depth of these two documents. It is as big as - each sentence backed by several book volumes of profound research.
Paul Sztorc convincingly demonstrates that PoW is the most efficient protocol for decentralization or 'trustlessness'. It appears that 'PoW is the cheapest' not only among the blockspace  but also cheapest everywhere and everywhen.
Mr. Game and Watch evaluates that if in the present day 100-ish $Trills strong global economy there was nothing but Bitcoin as a form of money - the value of a single BTC would be worth millions of $.
''Banknote waste diﬀers from other types of monetary waste in that it is much harder to perceive, by virtue of the complex nature of banknote creation. In contrast, Bitcoin mining directly consumes electricity, and gold mining obviously requires engineers, machinery, armed guards and so forth. At ﬁrst glance, it seems incredible that impoverished hunter-gatherers would devote some of their precious time to the manufacture of silly beads and shells and other collectibles. And, it seems wasteful indeed, that we humans use our powerful brains primarily to obsess over what other people think of us. All of these activities are wasteful,in a narrow sense, but in a broader sense they maintain the infrastructure required to promote and sustain cooperation. These are social activities – we engage in them because we are not alone.''
Apparently monetary system which involves humans to function is unscalable. In the preTau. It is far easier and unlimited as capacity to grow our electricity and machinery resources, than to replicate humans. 
Intuitively, the lower the Cost of Trust the stronger the society, the bigger and with higher acceleration is the growth of the economy, the higher is the affluence and wealth. , , , , , .
If hypothetically the Cost of Trust is zero, the value of the economy will be infinite?
The endogenous automation of production and distribution of trust which the blockchain enables many orders of magntitude lowering of the cost of trust, compared with the present hand-driven system. (As an example - Satoshi himself posited aka 'payment channels'  and Lightning Network  and such promise hundreds of thousands of times smaller transaction costs all internal to the trusltessness environment of blockchain without to rely upon human work to prove work ...)
At the end, what has Tauchain in common with that all?
Well, lotsa things. I'm light years if not infinitely far from any generalization and systematization, but here you are an improvised list ... of questions :
Please, you continue ...
 - https://www.thoughtco.com/clay-tokens-mesopotamian-writing-171673
 - http://www.ancientpages.com/2017/07/08/intriguing-sumerian-clay-tokens-ancient-book-keeping-system-used-long-writing-appeared/
 - https://arxiv.org/abs/1703.02572
 - https://steemit.com/tauchain/@karov/scaling-is-layering
 - https://steemit.com/tauchain/@karov/tauchain-transcaling
 - http://www.behest.io/ & https://steemit.com/blockchain/@karov/behest-for-tauchain
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pauli_exclusion_principle
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conservation_law
 - https://steemit.com/bitcoin/@karov/bitcoin-retrodictions
 - https://steemit.com/blockchain/@karov/geodesic-by-tau
 - https://www.coindesk.com/microscope-true-costs-gold-production/
 - https://www.coindesk.com/microscope-real-costs-dollar/
 - https://www.coindesk.com/microscope-true-costs-banking/
 - https://www.coindesk.com/microscope-economic-environmental-costs-bitcoin-mining/
 - https://thebitcoin.pub/t/under-the-microscope-conclusions-on-the-costs-of-bitcoin/44457
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mt._Gox
 - https://oracletimes.com/mt-gox-bitcoin-whale-trustee-seized-selling-bitcoin-btc/
 - https://steemit.com/tauchain/@karov/tauchain-the-hanson-engine
 - https://steemit.com/tauchain/@karov/tauchain-as-szabo-booster
 - https://winklevosscapital.com/money-is-broken-but-its-future-is-not/
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/5D_optical_data_storage
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Single-entry_bookkeeping_system
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Double-entry_bookkeeping_system
 - https://bitcoinmagazine.com/articles/triple-entry-bookkeeping-bitcoin-1392069656/
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autotroph
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mutual_information
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sorites_paradox
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holon_(philosophy)
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mereology
 - https://medium.com/@cryptoeconomics/the-29-trillion-cost-of-trust-be8ffbd5788d
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecumene
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Midgard
 - https://steemit.com/tauchain/@karov/tauchain-trumps-procrustics
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proof-of-work_system
 - http://www.pnas.org/content/99/16/10237
 - http://www.truthcoin.info/blog/pow-cheapest/
 - https://www.scribd.com/document/354688866/Bitcoin-A-5-8-Million-Valuation-Crypto-Currency-and-A-New-Era-of-Human-Cooperation
 - http://www.truthcoin.info/blog/blockspace-demand/
 - https://steemit.com/blockchain/@karov/tau-through-the-moravec-prism
 - https://steemit.com/tauchain/@karov/masa-effect-with-tauchain
 - https://steemit.com/tauchain/@karov/tutor-ex-machina
 - https://steemit.com/tauchain/@karov/tauchain-trumps-procrustics
 - https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf
 - https://lightning.network/
 - https://steemit.com/tauchain/@karov/tauchain-in-the-algoverse
 - http://www.juliansimon.com/writings/Ultimate_Resource/ & https://orionsarm.com/fm_store/Population.pdf
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cybernetics & https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Control_theory
Bizarre headline, isn't it? Sorry. It just ... coalesced spontaneously as ... a protein folding . Lets try to decompress it. Compression is comprehension . Decompression is experience. Firstly, I'll throw herein three bold statements - big separate mega-topics which I'll soon revisit by furnishing them with or backing them by their due Behest.io  full-fledged articles.:
1. The World is Fiat
I tend to generalize the term of fiat , to not only currency  but to all the Sollen  approach to transactors. In my vocabulary Fiat as an umbrella, general term for all social interaction which requires external enforcement, i.e. all what's not trustless or self-enforcing like morals  or blockchain . The whole system of monetized coercion. Or reciprocal - coercion backed fiat monetization . (Note: monetization of coercion vs coercion of monetization are not related by an OR  operator, but they are typical chicken-and-egg problem  - even the smallest children know that eggs precede chicks!) All what requires trust ...
2. Trust is Force
''You trust 'em only as much as you could make 'em to.''
Coercion or force or violence ... itself, IS currency per se - the primordial, the deeply preceding the emergence of Mankind one, and who manages to rigorize  it quantitatively will get and give us a TOE  unification of ecology and economics, i.e. instantly Nobel prizes! Not sure in which combination of fields. Simultaneously.
3. Money is Mnemonics
E.g. money in all forms is ... accountancy. Or book-keeping. Ledgers. Logs. Databases. Memory. They are even cognates  those - money and memory. Ancient truism.
It comes as necessity from the problem of simultaneity of transactions between autonomous agents, with other words - between automata , or self-thinkers, or those who are black-boxes  to each other. Regardless of whether the economy is mere barter, or it have uplifted one or more of its items to transactor/currency status.
Apparent feature of all accountancy systems is that they possess cardinality  of entries.
Up to now we know single-entry , double-entry  and tripple-entry  book-keeping system.
Not sure if a 'system' where everybody perceives, remembers and acts upon an isolated unshared 'ledger' of records on what's owed, contained only in its head - and runs it the way they could and want ... - counts for zero-entry book-keeping. Pun intended.
Can't wrap my head around negative or fractional numbers of book-keeping entries, nor I know what's the maximum practical and useful number of entries to juggle with. I expect Tau to bring together the, without any shadow of doubt, already available but dispersed across space and time bits and pieces of knowledge on accountancy entries cardinality into a general theory of transaction logging. It is necessary because, you know - an item is money (mnemonic  facility) ... transactor is accelerator , and general theory will give us a tool to know which monetary mechanism design  is the most powerful wealth growth booster.
Satoshi's blockchain is the first and only instance of successful implementation of the triple-entry book-keeping , so far, where credit and debit records and receipt are coined  into one. Self-enforcing log-book is as much (or not more) magical, or deus ex machina  solution then a horseless carriage vs a 'legacy' cart.
The blockchain catered total value is expectedly impressive grower itself. It took only 7-8 years to Bitcoin (and its imitations) to reach ~1% of what took 7-8 THOUSANDS of years to Gold  to get.
BUT, we still live in a predominantly Fiat, double-entry book-keeping world:
Visualize the modern world as a forest of centralized 2-entry ledgers:
From the several hundreds of tree stems - the Central Banks , though the thousands and thousands of commercial banks - fractional reserve franchisees of the Central Banks, down to the individual humans and firms credit-debit records.
A vast centralized fractal of 2-entry ledgers of ledgers. Lined into one by the global meta-ledgers - provided by international institutions like BIS .
Important Note: ... which I must make here - Lots of crap talk we've heard about how Blockchain is against Fiat, how it will replace it, how it frees us from the illths of the ancient regime  . NOTHING like that! The truth is that, for now, we do not have even the slightest idea or hint about how we could decentralize or detrust interpersonal voluntary exchange! Geography and history, e.g. nature and culture are forces to reckon. The propaganda suggestion that fiat money is kinda fake, printed at a wish, valuable only because we all believe in them ... is one of biggest nonsense I've ever heard.
As in any forest, the tree size and power varies. And matters. USD is the Yggdrasil  of the meatspace  of the global fiat mainstream Swartzwald  ! (Just like BTC is in the cyberspace one. It is not occasional at all that both are so perfect systemic benchmark matches.) In the ocean of fiat, USD is a giant landmass, a Pangea which is nearly impossible to go around of. The force of 20 000 golf balls of Plutonium coupled with same number of office dustbins of LiD  . And 1000+ military bases scattered around the world. And comprehensive coverage of the sea routes to guarantee that the global trade goes by the books. And working supremacy of law system as an antidote of internal corruption decay of the system... Shall the USD survive the Blockchaincalypsis? Of course! Taxcoins  are always needed. The runaway crypto-fication of the fiat monetary systems only makes the due payments of geopolitical services more and more unescapable. And more and more precise and fairer. With higher resolution and lower lag.
Backed by force means that the the strongest force is the most trustful. Like all those currencies who belong to the hall of glory of the millennial monumental transactors.: Hellenic drachma  - survived so far as a currency name in the Gulf , Roman solidus , Spanish silver dollar , etc. ... used to be. Mainstreamers - for being backed by the biggest force. (Mentioning the Force, we simply can not go without a Star Wars quote , I'm afraid - the best and most inexorable thesaurus of cliches.)
Lets close now the three side notes of dictionary intro here, and go back to PROCRUSTICS:
First, yes, it is about that antiquity gangsta, the psychopathic dropout of the noble blacksmiths profession - Procrustes .:
''who attacked people by stretching them or cutting off their legs, so as to force them to fit the size of an iron bed.''
Secondly, the etymology turtledoves  who explained to us what Behest is , clarify that:
Don't look exactly like pigeons, do they?
Thirdly, Procrustics by the great philosopher Stanislaw Lem . This is from Wikipedia:
''In 1959 science fiction novel Eden by Stanislaw Lem, Procrustics is the name of a fictitious information-theory based social engineering discipline of molding groups within a society and ultimately a society as a whole to behave as designed by secretive hidden rulers, to create a hideous form of social control in which the very existence of the governing powers is denied and each individual appears to themselves to be free yet are being manipulated and controlled. One example described in the novel is "concentration camps" without any guards which are designed so that the prisoners stay inside apparently on their "free" will.''
Last but not least, it is no surprise that this so much meaning laden word entered the vast fields of mathematics, too - , , , to denote so important concepts. Procrustean transformations:
''Hence, it may change the size, but not the shape of an ... object.''
I think this is enough of explanation to tie it up into:
The Fiat is procrustic because it is ripe to be transcaled!
Fiat is saturated. It can not grow the old ways any more. It is really dearer and dearer to be grown. It reached its internal limits.
Fiat (as global fractal integration of all double-entry accountancy books) is a narrative.
Fiat is procrustic, because being unaffordable thing to cover it all: it omits, it cuts off, it keeps out, excludes, discriminates, sequesters ...
As a narrative it tells a story of wealth, but leaves out so vast unsung, though present, riches.
The global fiat bards memory is too weak to memorize it all and they are not clever enough to distinguish the true from false entries ...
The fiat Yggdrasil Norns  fingers are weak to handle all threads and to manage to interweave them all into the meta-ledger ...
Giant mass of economic data left lying in waste, unused. And that's REALLY bad cause the data about the system state is the fuel for its own self-reinforcing positive feedback loop . Yeah, data as the new oil , but literally.
The estimates are that as much as up to 80% of all economic information stays off the record .
Cf.: Hernando de Soto Polar , who estimated that.:
''The existence of such massive exclusion generates two parallel economies, legal and extra legal. An elite minority enjoys the economic benefits of the law and globalization, while the majority of entrepreneurs are stuck in poverty, where their assets—adding up to more than US$10 trillion worldwide—languish as dead capital in the shadows of the law.''
in his 2000, ''The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere Else'' 
Cf.: aka Bazaaristan .:
''Across the globe, 1.8 billion people -- a quarter of the world's population -- work off the books each day. They are paid in cash for the goods they sell and the services they provide, and due to their ubiquity, there's a word for these merchants in nearly every language. As Robert Neuwirth reports, in French colonies, they're known as débrouillards -- self-starters, entrepreneurs, all outside the bureaucratic system. They might be vendors selling revolutionary goods in Egypt's Tahrir Square, Nigerians selling mobile phones, or the guy down the street hawking flowers on the corner. Whoever they are, they work in the world's fastest-growing economy: System D. As Neuwirth writes, System D, slang for "l'economie de la débrouillardise," is the crucial blackmarket, providing opportunities where the regulated global economy has failed. Its value is estimated at roughly $10 trillion, meaning, as Neuwirth points out, that, "If System D were an independent nation, united in a single political structure -- call it the the United Street Sellers Republic (USSR) or, perhaps, Bazaaristan -- it would be an economic superpower, the second largest economy in the world." The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) predicts that two-thirds of the world's workers will be employed in System D as soon as 2020.''
Cf.: the world unbanked population phenomenon 
''Two billion people worldwide do not have a bank account or access to a financial institution via a mobile phone, or any other device.''
The ancient worldmap picture up at the bizarre headline, denotes exactly this 'Here Be Dragons' situation of the Blockchain-unboosted yet Fiat finance.
All these examples demonstrate not a conspiracy of a kind, but mere and obvious fiat unscaling symptomatics.
Probably in the old centralized way, for a double-entry book-keeping system in order to check, record and run all facts of relevant economic information, would have to consume more than what the economy makes as a whole! :)
This inevitably crosses with the important topics of the network scaling effects - for merely linking all the dots means automatically n^2 bigger economy . Without to add anything new, but by just noticing and accounting of the existing wealth.
We have probably dozens of TIMES bigger economy than we realize! Tantalus suffering .
On the comparative costs of the accounting systems there are three studies, , ,  which I particularly value, and which put into a neat perspective together with the network scaling effects  are definitely subject of separate near future blog posts of mine.
Now scroll-up back to the ''Important note'' above, please.
Blockchain is not the Fiat killer. It is its Transcaler  !!
And Tauchain being - together with so many other things - the generalization and the generalizer of all possible blockchains in particular and all possible accountancies in general - is the transcaler of the transcalers.
And as effect - the ultimate economy (incl. economy governance ) Accelerator .
In a recent article of mine  I hinted my strong suspicion that scaling is itself scalable.
''Scaling is a problem. Scaling must be scalable, too. Metascale from here to Eternity.''
No matter what a terrific grower a system is - as per its own internal algorithmic growth drive rules - it seems inevitable its growth to get it into entropic mutualization  upon impact with a kind of a ... downscaler.
Scaling is everything, yeah. But it is quite intuitive and supported by too big body of evidence to ignore, that, paradoxically: the faster a thing grows - the sooner its encounter with an external and bigger downscaling factor comes.
This realization, refracted through the prism of our 'reptilian brain' layer  amplified to gargantuan proportions by our inherent social hierarchicity  is the source of the 'Malthusian  anxiety' which led to countless violent deaths over all the human history. Fear is anger , so the emotion that there is only as much to go around, and that the catastrophe of 'running out' of something is imminent, is the major source of what makes us bad to each other .
There are plethora of examples of very well mathematically and scientifically grounded doomsayer scenarios, and we must admit that they all correct as per their internal axiomatics  , and simultaneously they are all totally wrong for missing out the obvious - the factors of externalities  , the properties and opportunities of the medium which is consumed and/or created by this growth, and which transcend the axiomatics. For growth being always 'growth into'. The fact that doomsday scenarios are so compellingly consistent internally is what makes them so strong and dangerous ideological weapon of mass destruction .
Lets throw some such problem-solution couples for clarity:
a. the world of 1890es big cities sunk up knee-deep into beast of burden manure , and the super-apocalyptic projections of that VS Tony Seba's  1 pic > 1000 words of NYC carts vs cars situations in 1900 -1913 ...
b. the grim visions of the whole Mankind becoming telephone switchboard blue collar workers , the number of which should've exceeded the number of total world population by now to achieve the same level of telephonization or
c. the all librarians world  where it takes more librarians than the whole mankind to serve the social memory in the paper & printed ink storage facilities mode ...
d. the Club of Rome  as the noisiest modern bird of ill omen with 'projections' based on the same blind extrapolations as the urban seas of shit or the 'proofs' of the impossibility to connect or educate or feed all - instigating mass destruction fear that ''we run out of everything and will soon all die'' , used for justification for mass atrocities VS Julian Simon's  - the ''Ultimate Resource'' (1981, 1996) . Cf.: my accelerando article  and see what precisely is the Factory for succession of better and better Hanson drives for the last few millions of years - from the Blade and the Fire to the Tau - it is the same thing which identification made Julian Simon from fanatical Maltusianist  into rationally convinced Cornucopian  ... the human mind.
e. the predator-pray model  which this pseudo-haiku  I guess depicts best how's it brutally flawed:
''hawk eat chic -> less chic, human eat chic -> more chic''
for missing out to posit and failure to account for positive feedback loop  of predator over pray dynamics ...
f. The comment of Dary Oster  , founder of the other passion of mine - ET3 , on the aka 'saturation' of the scalables (exemplified in the field of transportation, which btw, being communication ... our social structures map onto mobility systems we have on disposal ... ).:
''... US transportation growth has focused on automobile/roads (and airline/airport) developments. (And this has been VERY good for the US economy.) The reason is that cars/jets offered far better MARKET VALUE than horse/buggy/train transport did 150 years ago. In the mid 1800s, trains displaced muscle power for travel between cities - because trains offered better market value than ox carts. Trains reached 'market saturation' about 1895 to 1905 (becoming 'unsustainable') - however 'market momentum' produced 20 years of 'overshoot'. Cars/jets were far more sustainable than passenger trains and muscle power, and started to displace trains (and finish off horses). By 1916 the US rail network peaked at 270,000 miles (today less than 130,000 miles is in use).Just like passenger trains hit market saturation, roads/airports are reaching economic limitations. The time is ripe for a market disruption, and all indicators (past and present) say it will NOT come from, or be supported by government or academia -- but from private sector innovations that offer a 10x value improvement (like ET3), AND also offer incentives for most (not all) key industries to participate (like ET3). Automated cars, smart highways, and electronic ride sharing are industry responses that will contribute to overshoot of cars/roads for the next 5-10 years.The main problem i see with the education system is that is that academic research and publication on transportation is primarily funded by status quo industries like: railroads and rail equipment manufactures, highway builders, automobile/truck manufactures, engineering firms, etc. -- all who fund research centered on 'improving' the status quo.Virtually all universities (for the last 1k years+) are set up to drive incremental improvements that industry demands, and virtually all paradigm shifts are resisted until AFTER they occur and are first adopted by industry. Government is the same (for instance in 1905 passing laws to forbid cars that were disrupting horse traffic; or in 1933 passing laws to limit investment in innovation startups to the wealthy (those successful in the status quo)).''
g. Darwinian algo  sqrt(n) VS higher algos - like Metcalfe n^2 . It is not precise, it is more of metaphorical, to indicate direction or scale of scaling, rather then rigorous precision, but ... the former figuratively speaking takes 100 times more to put up 10 times more, and the later takes 10 times more to return 100 times more...
h. Barter vs money. See.:  bottom of page 5 over the bottomline notes, about the later:
simpliﬁes pricing calculations and negotiations from O(n^2) complexity to O(n) complexity
As demonstration how one item out of a scaling barter system, emerges as specialized transactor and accelerator to transcale the barter economy. From within. Endogenously as always. (btw, Extremely strong document where there are entire books read and internalized behind each tight and contentful sentence!)
i. The heat death of the universe  VS the realization that the 2nd law  - conservation law for entropy/information law does not allow that , the asymptoticity  of the fundamental limits of nature, the fact that max entropy grows faster than/from/due to the actual antropy growth  and that entropy is not disorder  and that at the end of the day it is an unbounded immortal universe  ... cause it's all a combinatorial explosion .
j. The Anthropic principle  and the realization that it is extremely hard if not impossible to posit a lifeless universe  ...
k. The Algoverse - my 'psychedelic' vision  of the asymptotic inexorable hierarchy of the Dirac sea  of lower algos which take everything for almost nothing - up towards giving almost everything for almost nothing - Bucky Fuller's runaway Ephemeralization . Algorithms are things. Objects. Structure. Homoousic or consubstantial to their input and output. Things taking things and making things outta the former. Including other algos of course! Stronger ones.
l. The Masa Effect . The Master of Softbank seeing how the machine productivity is on the imminent course to massively overscale the human clients base and his apparent transcaling solution to upscale the clients base with bots and chips, with the same which scales supply in such a too-much way. 
m. The Pierre the Latil 1950es and Stanislaw Lem 1960es ( copied 1:1 by Tegmark  ) hierarchy . Of degrees of self-creating freedom of Effectors ...
n. Limits of growth - present in any particular moment and in any finitary setting of rules ,  but nonexistent in the infinity of rules upgradability. Like a cancer cell trapped in a cage of light  vs ... photosynthesis.
o. Ray Kurzweil - static vs exponential thinking .
p. Craig Venter's  Human Genome project  which when commenced in 1990 was ridiculed that will be unbearably expensive and will take centuries to finish, and it did - it costed a unbearable for 1990 fortune and it did take centuries, of subjective time as per the initial projections conditions - being completed in year 2000.
q. Jeff Bezos vision  of Solar System wide Mankind:
''The solar system can easily support a trillion humans. And if we had a trillion humans, we would have a thousand Einsteins and a thousand Mozarts and unlimited, for all practical purposes, resources.''
r. The 'wastefulness' of data centers and crypto mining collocation facilities  ... which is as funny as to envy the brain for 'wasting' >25% of the body energy. (Btw, the tech megatrend is exponentially and relentlessly towards the minimum calculation energy).
s. The log-scale intuitive measure and smooth straight line visualization coming out of, this quote which I fished out off the net long time ago.:
"The singularities are happening fairly regularly but at an increasing rate, every 500 to 1000 billion man-years (the total sum of the worldwide population over time). The baby boom of the 1950 is about 200 Billion man-years ago."
ops! go back to Q. With 1 trln. humans population the 'singularities' will occur once a year?!
t. the Tau  !!
I can continue with these examples ... forever [wink] - excuse me if I've bored you - but I think that at least that minimum was needed to be shown and it is enough to grok the big picture.
Scaling is the solution. It is a problem too. Its overcoming is what I dub 'Transcaling' for the purpose of that study.
Size matters. Scaling is the way. But the more general is how a system handles change! This is as fundamental as to be in the very core of definition of life and intelligence .
Tauchain is all about change handling!
Now, lets knit the 'blockchain' of these all example threads above into a knot like the Norns do :
Dear friends, please, scroll back to Example D. Yes, the human mind transcaler thing. The Ultimate resource thing.
We are the ultimate resourse.
We the humans (and soon the whole zoo of our technological imitations and reproductions and transcendences of ourselves ).
We as the-I  are strong thinkers and creators, immensely more road lies ahead than it's been traveled, yes, but yet we, as the-I, are the momentary apex in the Effectoring business  in the Known universe ... AND simultaneously we as the-We are mediocre to outright dumb.
We are very far from proper scaling together. The Ultimate resource is not coherent and is not ... collimated. Scattered dim lights, but not a powerful bright mind laser. Dispersed fissibles, but not a concentration of critical masses.
We as The-We - paradoxically- persistently finds ways to transcale its destinies using the power of the-I, but the-We itself does not entertain the scaling well at all .
The individual human mind is the unscaled transcaler.
Tau is the upscaler of that transcaler.
I'll introduce herewith another 'poetic' neologism, which occurred to me to depict the scaling props of a system after the Scrooge factor of ''Tauchain - Tutor ex Machina'' , and it is the:
Spawn  factor
- the capacity and ability of a system to grow through, despite, against, across, from and via the changes. Just like cuboid  is about all rectangular things like squares, cubes, tesseracts ... regardless of their dimensionality, the Spawn Factor - to be a generalization of all orders of scaling. Zillion light years from rigor, of course, as I'm on at least the same distance from my Leibnizization . For the lawyer to become a mathematician is what is for a caterpillar to become a a butterfly. :) Transcaling.
Tau transcends the infinite regress of orders of: scaling of scaling of scaling ... by being self-referential. Or recursive. 
What is the Spawn factor of Tau?
If you let me I'll illustrate this by a poetic periphrasis of the famous piece of Frank Herbert's .:
I will face my change. I will permit it to pass over me and through me. And when it has gone past I will turn the inner eye to see its path. Where the change has gone there will be nothing. Only I will remain.
Size matters. Some people object that it does not matter, but has meaning. But meaning always matters, so it is the same.
The bigger problems one solves, the bigger the gains. Big problems require big solutions. We live in a big universe and our very survival is to deal with bigger and bigger problems, which require bigger and bigger solutions to cope.
But nevertheless to build big is hard so we naturally prefer to create small things which can grow. Small from point of view both of understandable and affordable to build. So best fit are small solutions, cheap and easy to make which scale out or unfold or unleash into big means to address big problems. Scaling is everything.
Scaling. Scalable! Scalability !!
The root-word 'scale' possesses marvelous riches of meaning in English language  with lots of poetics inside.:
 snake skin epidermals - wisdom, memory, protection, rejuvenation, regeneration, eternity...
hen to pan (ἓν τὸ πᾶν), "the all is one"
 warrior armour - security, defense, power, strength.
 weighting scales - device to measure mass, unit, measure, account.
all very Blockchainy wording without any shadow of doubt.
The scalability issues could be grokked  with the following anecdote:
Bunch of workers on a construction site and a huge log. The onsite manager commands a few of them to lift and move it. They try and object ''Too heavy!''. The manager adds more and more workers, until they shout back again: ''Too short!''.
A few real examples, the first two - bad and the last three excellent:
[a] I won't name this 'crypto' just will say it is named after a mythical element of the universe, according to the prescientific gnostic  imaginations. It's core 'value proposition is to shovel meaningful computation into a thread of computation which very value proposition is to be as random, meaningless and unidirectional (hard to do, easy to prove) as possibly possible - the blockchain. The theoretically most expensive form of computation. Visualize: cars and airplanes made of gold and diamonds burning most expensive perfumes. Or mass production of electricity by raising trillions of cats and hiring trillions of people to pet them with grid of pure gold wires to discharge and collect the electrostatics. If they have chosen the original Satoshi blockchain  for their 'experiments' - where the futility of such attempt would become instantly clear and would die out outright due to impending unbearable cost - will of course be more fair way to do, and would've spared dozens of billions of dollars to the Mankind, but logically they preferred a 'controlled' blockchain of their own. In a sense that the guys with vested interest into it have the power to hand-drive, stop, restart and vivisect it. The only use of this 'blockchain supercomputer' is ... tokenomics by Layering. Why it was at all necessary for a blockchain advertised as so good as to do all the general computation, to be made so hairy and bushy with layered tokens??
[b] Another trio of chaps, won't mention names again, were really at awe with Satoshi's creation, so much that they not just liked, but wanted it and decided to have it. For themselves. All of it. And rebelled and forked out and provided 'scaling' errrmm ... uhhh... solution. By increasing the blocksize. Something which Satoshi meditated on, extensively discussed with his disciples and not occasionally decided to put breaks on.  Very recently the crypto news headlines said that the blocksize increase solution providers are eyeing ... Layering. Which they furiously were advocating that blocksize increase makes unnecessary. Cause it is the solution, isn't it? Or maybe it just was. And is not anymore? Well, I'd say that all the aka 'alts'  - to provide a rejuvenated clone of Bitcoin tweeked here and there to provide momentary ease of difficulty and transaction fees - suffer from one and a same problem - traveling back in time does not tell you the future.
[c] Lets jump half a century back in time. It is 1960es. The very making of internet. Computers are already here and scaled up in numbers so their networking to become a problem/juice worth the solution/squeeze. The birth of TCP/IP  and the report of the very makers of it. Of the solution for the network scaling. Enjoy the ancient wisdom:
Initially, the TCP managed both datagram transmissions and routing, but as the protocol grew, other researchers recommended a division of functionality into protocol layers. Advocates included Johnatan Postel of the University of Southern California's Information Sciences Institute, who edited the Request for Comments (RFCs), the technical and strategic document series that has both documented and catalyzed Internet development. Postel stated, "We are screwing up in our design of Internet protocols by violating the principle of layering." Encapsulation of different mechanisms was intended to create an environment where the upper layers could access only what was needed from the lower layers. A monolithic design would be inflexible and lead to scalability issues. The Transmission Control Program was split into two distinct protocols, the Transmission Control Protocol and the Internet Protocol.
The layering made the Internet as we know it. By the simple trick of just one node needed to permit another. Unstoppable inclusivity!
[d] The Mastercoin / Omni Layer :
«A common analogy that is used to describe the relation of the Omni Layer to bitcoin is that of HTTP to TCP/IP: HTTP, like the Omni Layer, is the application layer to the more fundamental transport and internet layer of TCP/IP, like bitcoin».
[e] The Lightning network (LN) :
The Lightning Network is a "second layer" payment protocol that operates on top of a blockchain (most commonly Bitcoin).
Satoshi spoke on 'payment' channels in his masterpiece. Foreseeing the way to scale.
An estimate of the power of LN layering .:
''The bitcoin devs accept that eventually larger block sizes will be needed. The current transaction rate isn't going to cut it if people all over the world actually start using bitcoin daily. They estimate that eventually, if everyone in the world uses bitcoin and makes 2 transactions a day, but uses the lightning network, a 133mb blocksize will be needed. Without the lightning network, something like a 200gb (GIGABYTE) size PER BLOCK would be needed to accommodate that much usage.''
Layering upscales it with orders of magnitude of higher efficiency.
If Bitcoin is the 'first layer' and Omni and Lightning are 'second layer', I see which one is the 'Zeroth Layer' and also foresee  the inevitability of the merger or 'Amalgamation' of all second layers over all blockchains, so the user will be able to transact everything into anything to anybody, without to know or care which chain is in use ... I have special nicknames for these and will go back to these topics in series of future posts.
Enough of examples I reckon.
The Postel's sacred Principle of Layering comes from the implementation levels paradigm.
or Abstraction layering :
''separations of concerns to facilitate interoperability and platform independence''
With other words - delegate the task to that layer of the system which does the particular job best. We can generalize this into The Scaling Commandment. Only one enough:
''Thou shalt not jam it all into a single layer!''
The Layer Cake architecture is literally ubiquitous across the Universe.: biology, semantics, informatics ...
It seems that it is if not the only, at least THE way to scale.
Maybe, someday, we the Humanity, upscaled by Tauchain will discover more powerful than Layering ways to Scale, but it is all we have for now.
Scaling is a problem. Scaling must be scalable, too.
Metascale from here to Eternity.
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Suggested readings to better understand the Tau ecosystem, Tau Meta Language, Tau-Chain and Agoras, and collaborate in the development of the project.
Lecturas sugeridas para entender mejor el ecosistema Tau, Tau Meta Lenguaje, Tau-Chain y Agoras, y colaborar en el desarrollo del proyecto.